The present study is to describe the class of performative utterances focused on behavioral verbs.
We try to analyze performativity focuses on behavioral verbs in the light of several theories often complementary, at other times divergent speech acts semantics and syntax. Our historical overview takes, from a critical perspective, theories of speech acts and performative utterances of John Austin, Emile Benveniste, Zeno Vendler, John Searle, G. Warnock, P. F. Strawson, François Recanati, Oswald Ducrot, Jean-Claude Anscombre, Alain Berrendonner, Daniel Vanderveken, Robert Martin, E. Goffman, Eddy Roulet, Jacques Moeschler, etc..
Our demonstration is particularly concerned with performative utterances focused on behavioral verbs from this kernel named "behabitives' by Austin," expressive "by Searle and Vanderveken and" acts essentially non-representative "by Recanati. We will use the name verbs behavioral, in order to have a general term that will define our class of verbs in the grammar and taxonomy.
The list of behavioral verbs in our corpus includes twenty-five verbs morphemic the following types: ACKNOWLEDGE, APPROVE, BLESS, blame, Praise, CONGRATULATIONS, forgiveness, pardon, Frustration, EXPRESS / EXTENDS CONDOLENCES, APOLOGIZE (BE SORRY) , PRAISE, glory, lamenting, RENT, THE CHALLENGE, curse, protest, COMPLAIN, RECOMMEND, recriminations, THANK, bowed, WISH, (SE) brag.
The second definition given to the Austinian performativity, which expanded the meaning of the concept has allowed us to divide the statements focused on the performative verbs in explicit behavioral and primary schools. Therefore, our grammar will analyze the behavioral statements and also the explicit performative performative utterances primary performative without prefix, then based on an implicit (such as: be sorry / Sorry / confusion / BORE).
We offer a model that aims to define a grammar and a taxonomy of performativity verbs that support behavioral criteria pragmatic, semantic and syntactic.
The pragmatic-semantic criteria are fol-reference and reflexivity, the conditions for success and failures, goals and expressive sincerity conditions, the direction of adjustment, the mode of achievement, the preparatory conditions and content propositional explicit and primary performatives allow us to define a model that includes features for performative utterances focused on behavioral verbs from the illocutionary force named.
We will see that the mental states defined for this type of performative utterance is represented by the formula m (p) where m is the particular psychological mode and p is the propositional content. From this formula, we establish two types of behavioral verbs: Desideri AND EVALUATION. Their defining features are marked from the modalization Désidéri-volitional and deontic respectively.
We agree with the thesis of François Recanati that the direction of fit between words and the world is empty. This is due to the fact that the act is representative of essentially non-expressive type is indirect and has no representative propositional content but rather a pragmatic context which is the theme or the occasion of the act. This is due to the use of questions like: Why and response type: BECAUSE.
Explicit performatives will be represented by the twenty-five behavioral performative verbs. The primary performance as set forth exclamatory (expressive) will be paraphrased by performative verbs behavioral denominate a primary illocutionary act indirectly by an act done literally. The indirection is explained by the theory of indirect speech acts made by John Searle (1982). The pragmatic conditions of illocutionary force designated by a performative verb behavior impose semantic rules of the act named by such a verb in the speech act theory of John Searle (1972) and the paradigm verbal morphosyntactic statements focus on the performative verbs behavior.
The value of truth is inseparable from the world of faith, according to Robert Martin (1983). Therefore, the behavior of our model verbs engage the responsibility of the speaker of the truth (or falsity) of the proposition expressed by his own universe of belief.
Semantic criteria - which define the syntactic grammar and taxonomy of performative utterances focused on behavioral verbs are formulated from cognitive semantics.
Cognition and cognitive words are of Latin origin and is available in French since the fourteenth century, according to Webster.
J. Fr Le Ny refers to as knowledge "justified true belief, or, more generally, a true representation justified" and as the cognition "a substantially larger entities containing similar, but regardless of their truth value "(1989 :26-27). Cognition includes both knowledge and error. Metacognition includes "beliefs, possibly false, that one has its own beliefs" (ibid. 28).
The terms cognitive and metacognitive will be used in Chapter VII for indirect metacognitive strategies and cognitive guidelines to be used in the teaching process.
Cognitive semantics gives us according Desclés (1990: 277) patterns of the organizers of cognitive representations of archetypes from cognitive, conceptual representations, from the predicative conceptual schemes and linguistic representations, based on grammatical patterns.
Cognitive archetypes are abstract structures located at a deeper level than linguistic representations. They aim to capture some of the meaning of the predicate language and are incorporated into the conceptual schemes that highlight predicative structures organized in predicative arguments (actants) and predicates. To build a predicative structure, one must have first formed an organized structure in predicates and arguments to begin operations next sermon. The preaching is to apply a predicate to its arguments. Predicative structures are encoded in the linguistic system, in morpho-syntactic form of specific grammatical patterns. The morpho-syntactic arrangement involves lexical predicates expressed by verbs with nominal arranged by syntactic operations of preaching.
Our model will use the archetype of 4 J. P. Desclés which is one of six cognitive archetypes built from four cognitive primitives for which it provides no explicit argument EDIT (ication), CONTR (EIS), and TO QUESTION. The archetype is characterized by 4 TRANS operator obtained by the decomposition of operators against and do and it describes a semantic transitivity is a control agent and performs both modification of a situation sit1 (y) and T2IS (y) , affecting the same object. In the prototype of the semantic transitivity AGENT opposed to the patient who is affected by the change.
Cognitive archetypes of transitivity for verbs behavioral type: Congratulations are integrated into a conceptual scheme with two actants (mandatory) that "may" then be cast within a linguistic system (1985: 8) in patterns grammar of the form T1 T2 P2 where P2 is a binary predicate, T2 is a direct object and shows the patient and T1 denotes a subject and agent.
The basic categories of action, event, condition, relation (causal, temporal, etc..) Object (individual) represent invariants described as cognitive conceptual categories used by the cognitive system of the individual to represent the world.
We propose in accordance with the cognitive semantics to determine what enables the individual to build a mental representation, specifically to establish the semantic features from which an individual can decide on the conceptual category that refers preaching.
From the semantic features of cognitive representations of the invariants, we can analyze the realization verbal semantic categories by providing the basic conceptualization of action, event, change of causation, state and individual and identifying ways language that can express them. We souscrions the three theses of the interdisciplinary group "cognition and language '[composed of researchers from the University of Paris in cognitive psychology (S. Baudet, G. Denhière, Ch Kekenbosh, JF Richard, JC Verstiggel) in social psychology ( Mr. Bromberg, E. Friemel, R. Ghiglione) and comparative linguistics (J. Francis, M. Lambert)]:
- A verb (or functional equivalent) in an actant is a minimal elementary preaching, which is the correlative of a linguistic conceptualization of the trial;
- Classification of semantic predications implements classifiers such minimum conceptual dynamicity, change, or causativité agentivity;
- The pattern shows two sub-groups of properties, the properties of the formation time of the trial and the properties of participatory constitution.
In our model, we can say that the primary unit of semantic processing is not the word, but the preaching, J. François defined as "the couple [verb (or functional equivalent of a verb) actant environment]." (1990: 14).
The environment is the context of actant actants, that is, semantically dependent constituents of the verb, the nature of this dependence is denoted with the assignment of one (or two roles): agent, object, recipient, etc.. (1990: 14).
The preaching of action and state that are part of the grammar and taxonomy of performative sentences focused on behavioral verbs behave like semantic features of cognitive representations of the invariants.
Cognitive invariants of our model are represented by semantic classification of incorporation time (aspectual graders) and participatory constitution (classifiers actant).
Classifiers of temporal constitution which are [+ dynamic], [+ CHANGE], [+ telic] [+ MOMENTARY] and binary classifiers that are participatory constitution [+ Agent] [+ causative] were introduced by J. François (1990).
Incorporation classifiers quadrupole participatory Chafe and Cook that contain the basic preaching [O, A], benefactive [O, (A), B], experiential [O, (A), E] and leasehold [O, (A) , L] have been reproduced from L. Gosselin and J. François (1991).
The semantic roles are those for experiential preaching (benefactive) action that is to say, [+ Agent] [+ experiencer], [RECIPIENT +] [+ SUBJECT] in combination with those for the event of psychological type, that is to say, [+ experiencer] [+ affector] [+ STIMULUS] (Cosaceanu, 1996: 79) and the structure of roles (Judge, Respondent, Recipient) by Charles Fillmore (1970) trial for verbs (which identifies the situational aspects from the presuppositions of these verbs).
Semantic roles that will have connections with the nominal phrase (eg the Agent will usually be subject), will be represented in deep structure, through a casual local type structure (Anderson, 1975) . This structure includes underlying structure ABSOLUT cases, ablation and RENTAL.
In our model, the propositional content of behavioral verbs always be interpreted as preaching from the temporal constitution and participatory roles and specific semantics for both types of preaching: ACTION or STATE.
Behavioral verbs, as receptors prénominaux weak admit nominalization of imperfect nominal that P +, the nominalization of the infinitive + Inf, and nominalization perfect type of nominal [+ name].
The six basic structural model of behavioral verbs are: No. Neither of the V P u Q, No Ni V1 C V, No. V what P, P u No DV to N2, No DV u P, No V Operations Det Vn C (for notations see 3.0 of Chapter IV) will be analyzed and interpreted from the model of the lexicon-grammar of Maurice Gross (1975).
Behavioral verbs that belong to tables 6, 9, 12, 13 and 15 Model Gross (1975) have semantic and syntactic properties adapted according to morpho-syntactic paradigm of performative expression. The subject of these verbs is by pronominalization and so I must have the feature [+ HUMAN] mandatory. The three forms of supplements (direct, preset to zero, and to indirect) are motivated by the following syntactic properties:
1) the property of the verb in behavior or its direct object to be possivable (with preposition or by agent). The direct object is not pronominalization the ppv because I morphosyntactic paradigm of performative sentences focused on behavioral verbs.
2) ownership of supplements to be pronominalization the PPV.
3) the property of the verb behavior to accept this type of completions Q u P, the infinitive nominalization type V1 Ç substantival and the complement of N).
4) the property of the verb behavior to accept a full code or the subjunctive.
5) the property of a verb behavior to have a transformational property (in other words, the possibility of the verb to enter two types of sentences, such as assets and liabilities).
6) the property of a verb to be behavior equivalence relation with another form (eg a verb as I congratulate you on the property to enter the syntactic structure of No. V Ni Qu P or that 'there is an entry in the lexicon-grammar of the form of Ni No congratulate Qu P where No = N1 = I and you, according to morpho-syntactic paradigm of performative verb behavior.
In what follows we will make a brief presentation of the chapters of our thesis:
Chapter I deals with the terminology essential for performativity and critique of theories and postaustiniennes on Austin's speech acts, performative sentences, performative verbs and verbs behavior. Performative sentences focused on behavioral verbs have this core at the base called "behavitives" by Austin, "expressive" by Searle and Vanderveken and "acts essentially non-representative" by Recanati.
Chapter II presents the typology of délocutivité in historical and critical, from the délocutivité benvenistienne, through the diachronic and synchronic lexical délocutivités and arriving to delocutive surdélocutifs and generalized. We will see the evolution of morphological and semantic verbs: THANK, APOLOGIZE (BE SORRY) is greeted through the typology of délocutivité.
Performativity and will délocutivité expliquuées délocutivité the generalized language reveal the relationship between meaning and non-performative performative sense in the evolution of the theory of action reflected in discourse analysis. The title of the final part of Chapter II, a shift TELL HOW TO WISH OR PERFORMANCE OF THE delocutive is representative for the motivation of this linguistic phenomenon that is the délocutivite in the structure of our study.
We propose in Chapter III to establish and analyze the criteria that define a semiotic grammar verbs behavior.
We try to make a definition of the class of behavioral verbs from the idea that these verbs are a subclass of action verbs.
THANK-type verbs are distinguished from verbs of type READ by the fact that the verbs of the first type do not accept the test insertion / SN is now V-er /. It is because of the fact that verbs are verbs THANK type of action, of accomplishment, temporary and timely. The words THANK behavioral type are also distinguished from verbs such LOVE. They contain an SAY, a DO, the features / + FOR / / + Volition / / CHANGE + / which are characteristic for action verbs. With these features, add features / experiencer + / / + PSYCHOLOGICAL /. Behavioral verbs, which denote the type of expressive illocutionary force, this force expressed by the statement / declaration of the sincerity condition corresponding to the mode of the mental state named by the performative verb. At the illocutionary force of action type a plus TO SAY that is triggered by the object of emotion. The performance of the act in question is to express the mental state specified in the sincerity condition.
We will refine this analysis by the idea of propositional attitude included in the sincerity conditions.
The typology of behavioral verbs in Chapter IV will include several aspects: classifiers and aspectual actant to a semantic classification, speech acts like behavioral classification for semantic and pragmatic-semantic and syntactic structures basic for classification semantic and syntactic.
The method of work will consist of a combination of the theory of speech acts, the impact is the pragmatic presupposition, the theory of the structure and role of case grammar and discourse structure analyzed using the concepts of cognitive semantics and notations of the model of the lexicon-grammar of Maurice Gross (1975).
Our research Chapter V will be based on morphemic verbs and verbal phrases. The list of twenty-five behavioral verbs in our corpus contains fifteen verbs from the list given by Vanderveken (1988: 199), refined with verbs of Austin classification for the purposes of the complexes typology.
Our analysis of performative utterances focused on behavioral verbs belonging to each semantic and syntactic structure is composed of basic semantic-pragmatic definitions followed by semantic and syntactic properties of verbal structures. Our analysis sample includes literary adjusted according to morpho-syntactic paradigm of performative verbs behavior.
Each word will be included in the table of the structural model to which it belongs with semantic and syntactic properties definitional and optional.
We will draw conclusions about the behavioral verbs belonging to each structural model from the overall analysis of each corresponding table.
Chapter VI presents a structural comparison between the French and English contemorain contemporary performative statements focus on behavioral verbs that express praise, a compliment, congratulation, condolence, complaint or a wish. We also analyze the characteristic features of trade repairers, flatterers and gifts-thanks in the syntax of contemporary French and English contemporary.
In Chapter VII we intend to improve the theory and practice this teaching of functional statements focus on performative verbs behavioral implementing metacognitive strategies and cognitive strategies indirect and direct memory processes teaching and learning of French as a modern foreign language.
Our study also seeks two objectives: a theoretical objective and above all a practical purpose, to contribute to an improvement of foreign language teaching in the context of the teaching function.