Health sciences are today one of the most important activities for maintaining and evolving human society. They include a wide range of disciplines: medicine, health psychology, biostatistics, health sociology, health management, etc. Over time, the contributions in the field have been spectacular, the major "leaps" have allowed the development both conceptually and applicatively.
The WHO (World Health Organization) defines health as a complete state of well-being on a physical, mental and social level and not just the simple absence of disease or infirmity. This definition has existed since 1946, officially accepted as a WHO point of view in 1948 and unchanged to this day. However, current medical practice is not always guided by the ideal precept regarding health. Many other issues are taken into account by the WHO when assessing the level of human functionality or dysfunction. One of the significant issues raised in recent years in the literature has been the accepted terminology, which today allows the circulation of several terms and / or phrases, apparently identical: deficiency, disability, incapacity, disability, special educational requirements (SEN) . A brief definition of them is able to outline the main delimitations at the conceptual level. Deficiency represents any disturbance of the normal structure and functions of the organism, any loss or anomaly of the psychic, physiological or anatomical structure or function. Disability is the partial or total reduction of the possibility to perform an activity (motor or cognitive) in conditions considered normal, due to a deficiency. Disability is a social disadvantage, resulting from a deficiency or inability, which affects and limits the individual's chances of exercising his normal role, according to age, sex, social and cultural environment; it limits or prevents a person from assuming his social role, as a result of an organic disease, physical, intellectual or sensory deficiencies.
UN resolution 48/1996 defines disability as "the loss or limitation of the chances of taking part in the life of the community at a level equivalent to its other members". In the opinion of the same author, "the hostile or indifferent social environment produces the state of disability".
Recent data, provided by the World Health Organization (WHO), estimates that there are 650 million people with disabilities globally.
According to the WHO, disability is an umbrella concept that covers a wide range, including deficiencies of any kind, limitations in activity, restrictions on participation. Deficiency involves a problem in the structure or functioning of the body (located at an organic or functional level). Limitation in activity is a difficulty encountered by an individual in performing a task or action, while restriction of participation is a problem experienced by an individual in solving life situations.
Health optimization is a multifaceted approach, which tends to increase the level of human functionality, to improve existence, to reduce disability. The studies in this volume cover some current issues regarding the health of our population: spinal cord diseases, whose incidence has increased significantly in recent years, aspects of neuropsychic assessment and recovery, the study and therapies of special disabilities, women's health, etc. . ... and up to the field of advertising in the field of products and services, as an aspect of health promotion and optimization. All chapters highlight recent perspectives, combining theoretical and applied aspects.
Regarding the title of the paper, the phrase "health optimization" has a generic role, suggesting the authors' intention to highlight not only a state of affairs, but also some ameliorating directions.
The work manages to bring together the contributions of Romanian authors working in academic institutions or prestigious medical units. The book provides new information opportunities for specialists in the field, offers guidelines to practitioners directly faced with problems they want to find interpretations and remedies.
Vasile G. Ciubotaru, Eugen Avram