Editura Universitara Civil law legal relationship in business matters. Course notes. Synthesis and applications

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ISBN: 978-606-28-1332-1

DOI: 10.5682/9786062813321

Publisher year: 2021

Edition: I

Pages: 216

Publisher: Editura Universitara

Author: Viorel Banulescu, Silvia Lucia Cristea

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The manual welcomes master students who follow law courses, with a predilection for those who will follow the courses of the Master of Entrepreneurial Law of the Faculty of Law of ASE, Bucharest, through a form of schematic writing, improved with questions and grids, so that they have both the course notes and the seminar ones, in an optimal fusion. The paper also contains dictionary notions, for a better understanding.
  • Civil law legal relationship in business matters. Course notes. Synthesis and applications

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SILVIA LUCIA CRISTEA 
VIOREL BANULESCU

 

Chapter 1
LEGAL NORM
/ 13
1.1. Legal norm / 13
1.2. Notion / 13
1.3. The structure of the legal norm / 14
1.4. Classification / 15
Applications: Questions, statements, grid tests / 13
1.5. Application and interpretation of civil law / 24
1.5.1. Civil law enforcement / 25
1.5.2. Interpretation of civil law / 28
1.5.3. Methods of interpretation / 31
Applications: Questions, statements, grid tests / 33

Chapter 2
LEGAL REPORT ON CIVIL LAW
/ 37
2.1. Definition / 38
2.2. Characters / 38
2.3. Subjects of the legal report / 40
2.3.1. Determination / 41
2.3.2. Plurality / 41
2.3.3. Changing the subjects of the legal report / 42
Applications: Questions, statements, grid tests / 42
2.4. The content of the civil legal report: subjective rights and correlative obligations / 45
2.4.1. Subjective civil rights / 45
2.4.2. Classification of subjective civil rights / 46
2.4.2.1. Classification of civil rights into absolute and relative / 46
2.4.2.2. Classification of patrimonial rights into real rights and debt rights / 49
2.4.2.3. Other classifications of civil rights / 52
2.5. Classification of civil obligations correlative to subjective rights / 53
Applications: Questions, statements, grid tests / 55
2.6. Object of the legal report / 58
2.6.1. Definition / 60
2.6.2. The good-patrimony correlation / 60
2.6.3. Classification of goods / 61
Applications: Questions, statements, grid tests / 69

Chapter 3
INDIVIDUAL TRADER - PROFESSIONAL IN VISION OF THE NEW CIVIL CODE
/ 73
3.1. Professionals in the vision of the New Civil Code / 73
3.2. Definition - Enterprise / 73
3.3. Categories of professionals / 74
3.4. Individual Trader / 75
3.4.1. Conditions related to the person / 76
3.4.2. Conditions related to the activity carried out / 77
3.4.3. Similarities between the three forms of activity by individuals / 78
3.5. Authorized natural person / 80
3.5.1. Characteristics of the legal regime of a PFA / 80
3.5.2. Legal status of the authorized natural person / 81
3.5.2.1. Registration and / or registration in the Trade Register / 82
3.5.2.2. Deletion of records / 83
3.5.2.3. Preparation of commercial registers / 84
3.5.2.4. Advantages of PFA / 85
3.6. The individual enterprise / 86
3.7. Family business / 87
3.8. Individual enterprise versus SRL - sole proprietorship / 88
Applications: Questions, statements, grid tests / 90

Chapter 4
EXTINCTIVE PRESCRIPTION
/ 95
4.1. Notion / 95
4.2. Important practice / 97
4.3. The effect of the extinctive prescription / 98
4.4. Special prescription terms provided in special laws / 102
4.5. The beginning of the limitation period / 102
4.6. Suspension and interruption of the extinctive prescription (modification of the prescription) / 103
4.6.1. The notion of suspension of the prescription course / 103
4.6.2. Causes of suspension (art. 2532 Civil Code) / 103
4.6.3. The effects of the suspension (art. 2535 of the Civil Code) / 105
4.7. The notion of prescription interruption / 105
4.7.1. Causes of interruption (art. 2537 of the Civil Code) / 105
4.7.2. Restoration within the limitation period (art. 2522 Civil Code) / 106
4.7.3. Comparison between P.E. from civil and from fiscal law / 107
4.7.3.1. Similarities / 107
4.7.3.2. Differences / 108
Applications: Questions, statements, grid tests / 109

Chapter 5
FORMS OF WARRANTIES
/ 114
5.1. General aspects regarding the regulation of the guarantee of obligations in the New Civil Code / 114
5.2. Gajul / 115
5.3. Mortgage - rethinking the institution / 116
5.3.a. Arguments related to the current mortgage regulation / 117
5.3.b. Regulations common to the two forms of mortgages / 118
5.3.c. Arguments related to the comparison with other legal institutions / 120
5.3.c.1. Comparison with the pledge / 120
5.3.c.2. Comparison with the patrimony of affectation / 121
5.3.c.3. Comparison with trust / 123
5.3.c.4. Comparison with the surety / 125
Applications: Questions, statements, grid tests / 129

Chapter 6
LEASING CONTRACT
/ 134
6.1. Brief history / 134
6.2. Terminology - international legal framework / 135
6.3. National legal framework / 136
6.3.1. Definition / 136
6.3.2. Parties (subjects of the leasing contract) / 136
6.3.3. Classification / 137
6.3.4. Characteristics of the contract / 138
6.3.5. Object of the contract / 140
6.3.6. The effects of the contract / 141
6.3.6.1. Obligations of the financier / lessor / 141
6.3.6.2. Obligations of the user / tenant / 143
6.3.7. Comparison with other contracts / 145
6.3.7.1. Comparison with the loan / 145
6.3.7.2. Comparison with selling - buying / 146
6.3.7.3. Comparison with location / 147
6.3.7.4. Comparison with the mandate / 148
Applications: Questions, statements, grid tests / 148

Chapter 7
FRANCHISE CONTRACT
/ 154
7.1. History / 154
7.2. French definition / 154
7.3. Payment includes / 155
7.4. Contracting Party / 155
7.5. Characteristics of the contract / 157
7.6. The effects of the contract / 158
7.7. Comparison with other contracts / 161
Applications: Questions, statements, grid tests / 162

Chapter 8
CREDIT TITLES: EXCHANGE, TICKET ORDER AND CHECK
/ 167
8.1. Change / 167
8.1.1. Change - payment instrument / 167
8.1.2. Change - credit instrument / 169
8.1.3. Exchange characters / 170
8.1.4. Mandatory mentions / 172
8.1.5. Transmission of bill of exchange through gir / 179
8.1.6. Avalul / 180
8.2. Promissory note / 182
8.2.1. Mandatory mentions / 182
8.3. Check / 183
8.3.1. Mandatory mentions / 183
8.4. Conclusions: Advantages of using credit titles / 185
Applications: Questions, statements, grid tests / 185

Chapter 9
LEGAL REGIME OF LEGAL INTEREST FROM THE PERSPECTIVE OF THE NEW CIVIL CODE. COMPARISON WITH THE LEGAL REGIME OF INTEREST IN BANKING AND FINANCIAL LAW
/ 190
9.1. Moratorium damages / 190
9.2. Delay of the debtor / 192
9.3. Interest: definition, forms, amount. Anatocism / 194
9.3.1. Forms of interest / 195
9.3.2. The amount of interest / 197
9.3.3. Discounts / 197
9.3.4. Anatocism / 199
9.4. Remunerative interest versus penalizing interest, according to O.G 13/2011 / 202
9.4.1. Similarities / 202
9.4.2. Differences / 203
Applications: Questions, statements, grid tests / 205

BIBLIOGRAPHY / 210

GRID SOLUTIONS / 215

 

Through this manual we plan to meet the masters who follow law courses, especially those who will follow the courses of the Master of Entrepreneurial Law of the Faculty of Law of ASE, Bucharest, whether it is our graduates or graduates of other universities.
We address you through a schematic form of writing, improved with questions and grids, so that you have both the course notes and the seminar notes, in an optimal fusion. I also joined dictionary notions, for a better understanding.
The information, transposed on slides, can also be used by law teachers, we hope, with great success, especially for online education.

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