Editura Universitara Balcescu and the secret societies

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34,00 Lei

ISBN: 978-606-28-1418-2

DOI: https://doi.org/10.5682/9786062814182

Publisher year: 2022

Edition: I

Pages: 244

Publisher: Editura Universitara

Author: Gheorghe Bichicean

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Much has been written about Balcescu's revolutionary activity, but we still know very little about his conspiratorial actions in secret societies. With a critical analysis of sources and sources, the book of the historian Gheorghe Bichicean seeks to reveal, at least in part, the mystery that surrounds the personality of the illustrious Romanian patriot and his status in secret societies.
 
Arch. Bogdan Constantin Dogaru


Nicolae Balcescu remains a restless chapter, full of life and action in European political history, a captivating and exhausted chapter in the history of Romania, a decisive chapter in the history of relations between Italy and Romania, a brave and very original chapter in history, which still wants to rise from the shadow of oblivion. Nicolae Balcescu, whose political and intellectual energy is like a breath of a vital impulse between the sea of Eastern Europe and the sea of Southern Europe, is and will be a European hero, as Michelangelo Ingrassia beautifully put it.

Author
GHEORGHE BICHICEAN

Foreword / 11

PART I
Instead of introduction / 15
Freemasonry and Carboneria or in the field of ideas in the field of action / 15
Balcescu. A Life, a History / 46
In the European concert of the Revolution / 63
1848. From Paris to Bucharest / 63
Balcescu, Young Europe and the Universal Brotherhood / 80

PART II ‑ A
NICOLAE BALCESCU AND THE SECRET SOCIETIES / 89
„FRATIA” SI FRANCMASONERIA / 89
In the crucible of secret societies / 91
"Brotherhood", the initiatory path to freedom / 105
The argument letter. Constitution / 105
Brotherhood and Carboneria in the mirror of time / 109
Lack of evidence. The fire of 1856/119
Freemasons and members of the Brotherhood/ 121
Nicolae Balcescu between Masonic myth and reality / 121
Loja l'Athénée des Étrangers / 122
Loja La Rose du Parfait Silence / 127
Freemasons and members of the Fratia society / 130
Nicolae Balcescu, the Masonic myth and reality / 151
A confusion of (mis) understanding: "Brotherhood" and "Justice and Brotherhood" / 160

PART III ‑ a
PALERMO, THE ETERNAL ORIENT / 173
The road to the Orient ... / 175
The hypothesis of the common grave in the Rotoli cemetery / 181
Capuchin Cemetery / 188
The hypothesis of mummification in the catacombs of the Capuchins / 188
The common grave in the cemetery of the Capuchin Fathers Monastery / 192
Related sources regarding the burial place of Nicolae Balcescu / 205
Appendix 1
„Nicolae Balcescu e i contatti / 209
Tra il risorgimento italiano / 209
And the Romanian Risorgimento ”/ 209
Conference / 209
Annex 2
Carbon degrees / 216
Nicolae Balcescu and the secret societies. Abstract / 221
Nicolae Balcescu and the secret societies. Summary / 225
Bibliography / 229

There are few historical sources attesting to Nicolae Balcescu's membership as a member of Freemasonry in the pre-Pasoptist and Pasoptist periods, even though he is also recorded as Venerable Master of a Bucharest Masonic Lodge in 1847. Without finding any complementary archival sources, these few notes make Balcescu's Masonic activity remains shrouded in mystery.
However, we have more consistent data about his activity as a member of some secret carbon companies. Balcescu's first participation in a revolutionary movement was in 1840. In his writings he relates the involvement of a secret society in the plot, stating that the revolt "had been prepared both by occult propaganda and by open propaganda." Balcescu had been initiated into D. Filipescu's secret society by J. A. Vaillant. The mentor of the organization was considered to have been the mason Eftimie Murgu.
In 1843, together with Ion Ghica and others, he founded the Societatea Secreta Fratia, an organization of Carbonarian origin, with the motto "Justice ‑ Brotherhood", which secretly prepared the start of the revolution of 1848, in Wallachia. Two years later, in 1845, together with other patriots, he founded in Paris the Society of Romanian Students, a kind of external branch of the Secret Society Fratia, which will be recognized as a legal entity by the French authorities in 1847. ‑Philanthropic, the purpose of the association was to prepare the liberation of the Moldavian, Muntenian and Transylvanian Romanians from under the foreign yoke and the restoration of the old Dacia.
A member of the Provisional Government in 1848, Balcescu supported the reformist program, and after the defeat of the revolution went into exile, supporting the accession of the Romanian National Revolutionary Committee to the Central European Democratic Committee, founded by Mazzini in London in 1850. Balcescu's work in exile dedicated to the ruler Mihai Viteazu, symbolizes the very political-national ideology of the Pasoptist generation: Daco ‑ Romanism.
Much has been written about Balcescu's revolutionary activity, but we still know very little about his conspiratorial actions in secret societies. With a critical analysis of the sources and sources, the book of the historian Gheorghe Bichicean, seeks to reveal, at least in part, the mystery that still surrounds the personality of the illustrious Romanian patriot and his status in secret societies.


Arh. Bogdan Constantin Dogaru
 

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