It is already well-known that technology is advancing at a rapid and continuous pace, with science driving and contributing significantly to its development. New occupations appear every day. Education assumes the role of preparing students for challenges that, from a professional perspective, may not have been launched yet. Thus, the competence to learn is a major responsibility of the contemporary school. In order to develop personalities capable of responding to the needs of the information society, students' acquisitions must be adaptable to dynamic social and professional needs and contexts.
The skills that students acquire in school must allow them to be anchored in the real world. Education systems are facing, worldwide, the rapid development of the information society, where the skills and skills of manipulating information are absolutely necessary to survive. Economic and industrial competition creates and deepens the contradiction between the assimilation possibilities available to the student, on the one hand, and the requirements imposed by contemporary life and the current structure of the school, on the other hand, demanding the raising of all social categories.
Internationally, many countries now state that the integration of information and communication technologies (ICT) into their education system is a major goal. A major impact of this decision can be seen in the process of curriculum design and development. This document aims to respond to the current needs generated by the implementation of a curriculum based on information and communication technologies, participating in the compatibility of teaching practice with this new orientation.
The essence of this curriculum, based on the integration of information and communication technologies in current training approaches, consists in reconsidering the way in which learning occurs and the role of the two major educational actors: the teacher and the student. In this new context, this paper aims to provide a theoretical and structural perspective on the ICT curriculum, as well as on the role and weight of various components of the curricular system in designing the learning offer based on the integration of information and communication technologies. training and evaluation.
Thus, the major epistemological paradigms with substantiation role will be approached, a series of theories associated with them, but also elements that guide the curriculum design process: principles and criteria with projective role.
ICT has become an important engine of daily life and economic activity. The vast majority of people today use the computer for a variety of purposes; For the younger generation in particular, using a computer is a normal, everyday activity. The integration of computers in the field of education reflects these trends.
Successful use of computers in educational contexts depends not only on their availability, but also on the familiarity of users with them. This also applies to internet access.
The expectations and demands of society in general and of the professional environment in particular are going through a moment of fundamental change. "The 21st century has already brought historical changes to the professional environment. The era of knowledge required a continuous flow of well-trained employees, employees who use brain power and digital tools to implement, in their daily work, well-polished skills. Today, professional environments are increasingly based on collaborative teamwork, whose members are often in different locations and need to use a zoo of tools and services to coordinate their projects. " (Trilling and Fadel 2009).
These changes can also be seen in social perceptions of what the skills of the 21st century mean, cultural and ethnic identity, but also literacy, whose core component is digital literacy.
These major changes, which take place at the social level, are undoubtedly reflected in the level of formal education. Different forms of information and communication technologies (ICT) are discussed, analyzed, discussed or simply observed. In the context of implementing a curriculum based on information and communication technologies in special education, the role of ICT is to be a tool to produce learning, to support authentic individual communication and expression, beneficially integrated in the educational process of students. ICT is not a tool of the school space, but can be integrated into the student's personal curriculum.
Each of the levels of the education system, from preschool to university or even lifelong learning, is subject to the impact of the transformations described above. As recent research (Heckman 2010) proves, the preschool and pre-university level are the stages with the greatest impact in terms of acquisitions influenced by the use of information and communication technologies, and that middle and high school students will support collaboration, critical thinking and complex logical-deductive reasoning. "The first years of a child's development are the most sensitive stage in terms of cognitive acquisitions, while adolescence is the best time for non-cognitive acquisitions. Remedial interventions can be costly and often ineffective ”(Heckman 2010).