The discipline "Economy and management of the enterprise" corresponds to an important theoretical - applicative field responsible for investigating the necessary conditions for ensuring the maximum efficiency of the enterprise 's functions. From this perspective, the enterprise is seen as a complex economic system, respectively a set of organizational structures, resource and labor flows, information relations and managerial decisions, articulated and functionalized so as to provide the necessary operational support for the economic activity of the enterprise. optimal conditions.
Management is one of the most important responsibilities that a modern enterprise must assume in order to successfully achieve its global mission - creating and maximizing economic value. The critical character of the field of economics and management is determined by the fact that, at enterprise level (but not only), economic efficiency acquires relevance and conclusion only if it is expressed through complex integrative categories and approaches. Of course, this means that business decision-makers admit that, in addition to the strictly financial aspects of performance, there are other dimensions of business efficiency, of a non-financial and non-monetary nature, that are just as important as, for example: product quality, customer satisfaction, internal climate, image and reputation, ecological impact, social effects, contribution to technological progress, etc.
The particularity and the advantage of the integrative perspective on the economy and management and implicitly on the efficiency of the enterprise results from the possibility of precise quantification of the economic effects and efforts, ensuring, on this objectified basis, the comparability in time of data on the operation and performances registered by the enterprise. Also, the systemic approach of the enterprise activity allows the rigorous and pertinent analysis of the generative factors of the success or failure of the enterprise. These arguments support the necessity and importance of the economy and management of the enterprise as a field of crucial importance of the enterprise's life.
The sphere of economy and management of the enterprise is circumscribed by the totality of the managerial decisions and options that aim at attracting and the rational and sustainable allocation of the resources of any kind of the enterprise. The major objective of the economy and management of the enterprise is to maximize in the long run the economic value of the initial capital investment made by the shareholders of the enterprise. In this way, the steps regarding the management of the enterprise must be subordinated to the restrictions and development priorities deriving from the general business strategy promoted by the enterprise. Considering the mentioned conditions, we specify that the management of the enterprise has the role of ensuring the decisional support of the enterprise strategy, but also of the operational processes. For this purpose, the management of the enterprise is obliged to make an extremely difficult and delicate arbitration, between the short-term economic-financial constraints and the long-term ones, to which the business is subject.
The approach requires, without a doubt, a predictive, anticipatory approach of the system of economic factors and processes that shape, in one sense or another, the dynamics of the enterprise.
In other words, the management of the enterprise involves a very careful control of the economic-financial risks likely to affect the enterprise, especially in a fluid and uncertain business context. The maintenance of the main economic and financial balances and the maximization of the performances in the conditions of some reasonable risks outline, therefore, the preferential maneuvering area of the enterprise management. The optimization of internal processes and relations with the economic environment, especially with the markets of products and resources, is, therefore, presented as a fundamental stake in the management of the enterprise. The harmonization of strategic cycles and exploitation cycles (associated with supply, manufacturing, storage, sales operations) is, for this reason, the very essence of the economy and management of the enterprise.
For the economy and management of the enterprise, the slogan "Maximizing opportunities and minimizing risks" would be an extremely accurate and edifying synthesis of issues and concerns. Prudence, reasonableness, responsibility and feasibility are the basic criteria in management decision-making processes. In the management of the enterprise, the application of these principles materializes in a wide and diversified arsenal of quantitative models and techniques whose purpose is to ensure the objective and substantiated nature of the reasoning and conclusions based on which the management of the enterprise will design its decisions and short-term business plans. and long.
This course was conceived and developed based on the ideas set out above on the nature and content of the discipline Economics and enterprise management. The course included aspects and topics of major importance, such as: organizational dimensions of the enterprise, financial balance, short-term management, budget planning, investment management, long-term decisions, etc. The specificity of this course consists in the permanent association and interrelated approach of the main specialized fields identifiable within the enterprise - finance, logistics, production, marketing, human resources, general strategy. Management decisions cover all aspects of the company.
The interaction of financial and non-financial factors is the force that propels the company towards performance. Moreover, this argument justifies the inclusion of a separate chapter, dedicated to the organizational dimensions of the enterprise as areas of interference and osmosis between the economic - financial and non - financial phenomenology manifested at the enterprise level. We believe that such a mixed approach can only stimulate a deeper understanding of the real springs of the company's performance.
This course supports both students from the specializations "Economics of Commerce, Tourism and Services", as well as practitioners interested in modern and efficient ways of managing the enterprise. In this sense, the exposition of the paradigms and theoretical concepts is illustrated and completed with the help of a rich palette of problems and solved applications. Readers also have the opportunity to strengthen their practical skills in the field of economics and business management by "solving" some problems proposed for solution. We sincerely hope that this work will be a real guide for them in the world of management decisions, a world of paradoxes animated by both incandescent passions and cold calculations.
Assoc. Dr. Roxana Arabela Dumitrascu
Assoc. Dr. Vadim Dumitrascu