In the elaboration of the paper Budget and Public Treasury we took into account the importance of the budget in the evolution of public finances, as well as the need to reflect the way of setting up public financial funds in the form of revenues and their distribution by public expenditures society.
This paper is designed as a study material available to students and all those interested in deepening this topic and who want to know the concrete methodological and practical aspects of this complex field of public finance. Also, through the content focused on applications and grid tests, the paper can be a guide in the study, practical solution and deepening of various issues raised by the state budget and treasury. Thus, the paper is structured on nine significant chapters.
In the first chapter, entitled Consolidated General State Budget, we presented the content of the budgetary system and its structure, budgetary principles, types of budgets encountered in international theory and practice, increasingly diverse concepts on the role and functions of the budget, and various methods and techniques. sizing of budget expenditures and revenues.
The second chapter, entitled The Budgetary Process, highlights the budgetary process on the main components of the Consolidated General State Budget (State Budget, State Social Insurance Budget and Local Budgets), with reference to phases, features and a series of detailed analyzes of as well as the presentation of the bodies with attributions in the budgetary process, specific to Romania, the member country of the European Union.
The issue of financial balance, in general, and budgetary balance, in particular, in the context of current financial and monetary policies that can be used both in ensuring financial balance and in ensuring general economic balance, is addressed in the third chapter, entitled Financial balance.
The fourth chapter of the State Treasury, necessity, role, functions, addresses a series of aspects regarding the need, definition, role and functions of the State Treasury which ensures the budget execution, in a narrow sense, and the execution of public finances, in a broad sense.
Aspects regarding the system of organization of the State Treasury, as well as its functioning mechanisms at central and territorial level, are found in the fifth chapter, entitled The way of organization and functioning of the State Treasury.
The issue regarding the financial inflows and outflows of funds to and from the State Treasury both at central and territorial level, the National Payment System managed by the National Bank of Romania, viewed through the State Treasury, financing and control of the budget deficit, as well as the management of the public debt are the object of study in the sixth chapter, entitled the State Treasury Management. The seventh chapter, entitled Considerations on the current organization of the State Treasury, highlights a number of issues regarding the improvement and transparency of the State Treasury's activity to contribute to increasing its efficiency, with positive effects on eliminating dysfunctions, resulting from frequent changes legislation.
Chapter eight, entitled The role of the information system in the efficient functioning of public finances, presents aspects regarding the limits of the current information system and its possibilities for improvement in the field of the State Treasury.
The last chapter, entitled The Budget of the European Union, is dedicated to the budget of the European Union where its general characteristics are presented, as well as the structure of its revenues and expenditures with concrete references to a series of challenges with budgetary consequences for sectoral policies. Community budgetary resources.
The authors of the paper Budget and Public Treasury aimed to clarify the basic concepts with which this field operates on the two segments, namely: budget and treasury, but also of some concepts with which the other financial disciplines operate.
Also, the paper has an important role in training students as future specialists in the financial and economic field, respectively, especially given that the efficient functioning of an economy is based on the predominant use of levers and financial instruments to regulate and self-regulate processes. economic and social.
We express our hope that this paper, which was conceived as a study material, will be a tool made available to students and all those interested to initiate and deepen this very important field in the current socio-economic context. We also believe that the paper can be perfected, and we, its authors, will be receptive to the recommendations of readers, as well as to the evolution of this field at national, European and global level.