The relationship between theory, ritual and feeling is essential to any religion and Christianity is no exception. On the other hand, the effect of "transitions" on the three components mentioned is a chapter of any "noologii" any future science of the spirit. And in these points are content to this book. Three perspectives are shaping the content of the paper: the "longitudinal", because values can not be broken formation and activity of human ages, the "horizontal", for an overview of the values the company at a time can not be avoided and it is age beyond which they bind in terms of value, the "transition", and it essential because they all evolve in unexpected context. From this last perspective, some conclusions of the book appear in the foreground: Christian values have resisted communism, despite aggressive efforts ateizare, continuity of values from parents to children could not be annihilated, Christian values are weak in living area , as we expect, but in the ritual, which should give pause.
The paper is addressed to specialists and students in psychology, sociology, theology, and those from other areas interested in this issue. It is the work of a psychologist known, fully formed, and social transformations linked to our transient human society.
Theme addressed by the author is a real theoretical significance for disciplines that deal with knowledge and explanation of human nature, and applied to education, training and development of personality, religion and religious faith are becoming essential directions and our înnobilării sprituale.
Important topics is the greater social and human sciences in our country as, for nearly half a century, religion was brutally assaulted by the totalitarian regime confined and has put in place the Communist Party ideology and doctrine.
It is therefore necessary and interesting to research and established religious situation and the dynamics of this stage, after almost two decades of the acquisition of freedom.
The problem of the place and role of religion in society generally, in contemporary society, in particular, was and is the object of debate and controversy in the world, lacking here opinions and views extreme, unilateral-absolutist. But there is no doubt that for psychology as a science, religiosity, religious faith and religious feeling is the size of the core values of individual and groups of personality structures to be studied and analyzed like any other psycho-behavioral phenomena with possible methods and rigorous targets. Psychology of religion can not be reduced to a contemplative, speculative building, but it must be based on practical research and analysis of empirical facts.
Ms. Corina Mihaela Tutui work falls precisely on such a coordinated and consistency and value can be regarded as a worthwhile contribution to scientific knowledge and objective analysis of the religious sentiment preadolescenţii, adolescents and young adults in our country today.
The theoretical part of the work consists of two chapters - religion in the context of social and religious feeling: facets, spheres, connections - and presents, based on selected critical turning an impressive number of bibliographic sources, a consistent picture of approaches and interpretations on the origins, evolution and role of religion in human society and individuals.
The general methodological importance off the idea that religion, in its different forms or variants, was considered on the one hand, man's fundamental value component of culture, and on the other hand, the only way to spiritual perfection accessible to all. We note the subtlety and originality of analysis and intercondiţionării interpenetration of social and psychological, of the cognitive, emotional and behavioral development and diversification of religion. Equally valuable is the analysis of the scientific aspect of faith and religious feeling in Romanian, with revealing two major stages - the sacralizării and expansion of Orthodoxy - the beginning of Christianization until the establishment of the communist regime - and the desacralizării and containment, the the establishment of the communist regime until its collapse (1989). After 1989, resacralizării stage begins - the sacred basis and rationale of religion. It shows with great clarity and brevity path of historical evolution of Christianity from homogeneous to heterogeneous-differentiated diffuse-and then to nearby ecumenism today.
In analyzing the nature and role of religion, the author has adopted a dual perspective - psychological and sociological - and managed to dislodge the key aspects offered by each of the two perspectives to achieve an understanding and explanation of systemic-integrative type.
In light of the two perspectives, it is considered that the status of religion in contemporary society is at a lower level than in the past, its functions were limited, most authors consider it only a binder and a catalyst of human relationships and the balance social.
In the section devoted to religious sentiment, the author of the work achieved a synthesis as dense as it is clear, enlightening the most important ideas and viewpoints, not only from psychology and sociology of religion, but in general psychology, neuropsychology and personality psychology .
Integrated into the wider sphere of affectivity, religious feeling is distinguished among other emotional entity by its referential object or that is always sacred, divine. He is one who expresses and achieves human tendency to merge with absolute existence with God.
The author has the merit of being passed from phenomenological description to describe the internal structure of religious sentiment, its delimiting the three essential components: cosmological component (reflecting the "object"), ritual component (induced behavior "object") and subjective component in living form. Always present, the three components vary in intensity and weight from one person to another.
By identifying and determining the three structural components, the author was able to operationalize adequately the concept of religion, which is defined as the system integrates three groups of values: cosmogony, and subjective-emotional ritual.
Phylogenetic and ontogenetic in its evolution, religious feeling of the speaker through the different stages of the affective-cognitive behavior, from the irrational rationality.
Stages of faith, the author points out, are different from those of the intellect or cognition (intuitive-projective faith stage, mythic-literal faith stage, synthetic-conventional faith stage, stage-consolidators paradoxically faith, faith universal stage).
Determinism in explaining religious sentiment, it insists on the two broad categories of factors: external (natural environment, social environment) and internal (structural peculiarities of personality).
Considering the religious feeling of the central integrative structure axis at the individual level of religion, the author aims to investigate state (structure) and dynamics of the three segments constituting the Romanian population: preadolescent, adolescent and adults.
Research as such, presented in the second part of the paper, followed the general objectives, such as religious sentiment diagnosis and appropriate methodology to develop a specific investigation and assessment thereof, and a series of specific objectives for common and differential aspects of the constitution structure and functioning of the sense that levels of the three categories of subjects considered.
Objectives and have found a true reflection of the assumptions and logic of organizing and conducting research.
This was in two phases: first phase focused on an analysis of religious sentiment and identify primary indicators or its descriptors, highlighting their structure and evolution of how the three age categories - preadolescent, adolescent, adult, second stage consisted the systematic and thorough study of the structure and dynamics of religious feeling, with particular emphasis on highlighting characteristics in adulthood, the age at which states itself psycho-behavioral stability.
The first part of the research and in the second, subjects were included lots of meaningful and proportionate number after age three, which gives consistency and relevance generalizing results. All subjects belong to the Christian Orthodox religion. Separation of faithful subjects, who were the subject of the investigation, was based on their self-definition option and as such. Thus the result and category religious or atheist indifferent subjects who were considered "control group".
To achieve the objectives set and verify the assumptions made, the author has selected and used a repertoire of appropriate samples and highly discriminatory sensitivity, which allowed sufficient precision to capture the common aspects of both structure and dynamics of religious sentiment, as and specific differential aspects of each of the three sublots: preadolescent, adolescent, adult.
The results obtained in the samples were applied and treated thoroughly systematized rigorous statistical, with reference to each objective and working hypothesis. By this, it has acquired a high degree of consistency and credibility of science, established itself as one of the most serious and relevant psychological and psychosocial contributions to the analysis of religious feeling.
This contribution is focused on the following main aspects:
- Determine the internal structure of religious feeling, determining and describing the three basic components: cosmological, ritual and emotional (living);
- Demonstration of the changing nature and structure peculiarities of religious feeling in ontogenesis, outlining the report and the interaction between the three constituent elements;
- Highlighting the differences in the longitudinal - between subjects of different ages - and horizontally - between subjects of the same age as the configuration of relations between components, the intensity and stability of religious sentiment;
- Capturing, along with continuity and a discontinuity in the transmission of religious sentiment - vertically, from parents to children and horizontally - between subjects of the same age;
- Composition of the investigated subject responses based on the correlation of psycho-behavioral profile of the faithful and religious man or deduction from the analysis of the profile of the positive role of faith and religious feeling in the lives of individuals and society;
- Establishment of triadic series: on the basis: true, regardless, an atheist - which are of special importance in the analysis of methodological-operational dynamics of formation and the factors favoring or disfavoring of religious sentiment;
- Demonstration that although family plays the main role in molding the inoculation and religious faith, there are cases significant number of people who come to this belief on their own, following the assessment of life experiences. This has special significance because it shows that religion and invoking the Deity appear as a last chance for fulfillment of human desires not only in heaven but here on earth;
- Establishing the fact that in this stage - the knowledge society and technological advances - religion continues to be among the core values not only for older generations, but also for the young.
I appreciate the richness of ideas, the strength of arguments, claims and personal reflections, the original, the book stands as an outstanding contribution to the development of scientific psychology of religion and will enjoy a favorable reception from readers.
Bucharest, July 2, 2009
Prof. Univ. Dr. Mihai Golu