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Editura Universitara Logic and Critical Thinking. Complete guide to solving formal logic and critical thinking grids. Admission Faculty of Law

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Publisher: Editura Universitara

Author: Alin Alexe, Ania Mihailescu Pirvan, Florinela Mihailescu Pirvan, Tudor Alexe

Edition: I

Pages: 160

Publisher year: 2024

ISBN: 978-606-28-1784-8

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Candidates who take the entrance exam to law schools have in this complete guide to solving problems of formal logic and critical thinking, an accessible and useful methodological tool for understanding, solving and success.
In developing this book, we tried to look at the problems of critical thinking and formal logic, from the perspective of the effort that a high school student should put in to be able to solve, without making mistakes and in the shortest possible time, any problem of the type proposed by the examiners. In this sense, we have relied on the exhaustiveness of solving the models and subjects through various methods, leaving those who are preparing for admission to Law faculties, the freedom to choose the fastest solution method.
The team work, to which each author contributed by testing, formulating, verifying or even clarifying or inventing proposed methods and exercises, materialized in this book, the work at the end of which we can say: "It is amazing what you can achieve, if not - do you care who gets the credit." (Harry S. Truman)
Being the only book that fully solves both the subjects of critical thinking and formal logic, as well as the proposed models of this type of subjects for the exams and simulations of entrance exams to law schools, each through several methods, we consider it a rarity among law publications. profile, and as rarity usually has value... we ask the reader to formulate the conclusion of this third degree enthymeme, also known as the didactic enthymeme, because it was used in the educational process of the philosophical schools of antiquity, when the involvement was followed disciples in reasoning.

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  • Logic and Critical Thinking. Complete guide to solving formal logic and critical thinking grids. Admission Faculty of Law

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ALIN ALEXE – professor of socio-human subjects at the National College "Unirea" Turnu Magurele, graduated in Physics (1996) and Philosophy (1997), University "Al. I. Cuza" Iasi.
He continued his professional training through a cycle of in-depth studies in philosophy (1999) and a doctorate in philosophy (2011) at the University of Bucharest, then through a master's degree at the Faculty of Applied Sciences (2021) within the Bucharest Polytechnic University. In the 26 years of experience in education, he has trained students who participated and sometimes received awards at various school Olympiads - the national phase:
- National Socio-Human Sciences Olympiad: mention in Civic Culture (1998), 2nd prize in Philosophy (2011) and participation in the International Philosophy Olympiad, Vienna, Austria (2011), 3rd prize in Economics ( 2023).
- "Solomon Marcus" National Linguistic Olympiad: mention (2017).
- National Olympiad of Argumentation, Debate and Critical Thinking "Young people debate": mention (2017).
He was a member of the Central Commission of the National Olympiad of Philosophy (2006, 2007) and of the Central Commission of the National Olympiad of Argumentation, Debate and Critical Thinking "Tinerii debat" (2018) and is a trainer-evaluator of the Corps of evaluators for the exams and national competitions (CPEECN), member of the Working Group for the curriculum, Philosophy discipline, of the Ministry of Education.


FLORINELA MIHAILESCU PIRVAN - professor at the Department of Socio-Humanities at the National College "Unirea", from Turnu Magurele, with more than 20 years of experience at the department, graduate of the Faculty of Philosophy, University of Bucharest (2003), postgraduate courses in specialization at ASE Bucharest (2006), a postgraduate master's degree in specialization (2010), as well as a postgraduate conversion course at the Politehnica University of Bucharest (2012).
He was involved in the preparation of students for participation in various Olympiads and competitions, obtaining prizes in various competitions, but also significant results, both in the baccalaureate exam and in the one for admission to university education. Member of specialized commissions, trainer, national expert in various projects, actively involved in the creation of working groups, is registered in the National Body of Experts in Educational Management (2013).


ANIA MIHAILESCU PIRVAN - student in the 11th grade at the "Unirea" National College, Turnu Magurele, Mathematics-Informatics major, founding member of the College's "Applied Logic, Linguistics and Critical/Creative Thinking Club", won various awards at "Solomon Marcus" Linguistics Olympiad - county stage - Mention (2023), III Prize (2024) and participation in the national stage (2021). He won the 1st Prize at the county stage of Logic (2023) and the 7th place at the National Socio-Human Sciences Olympiad - national phase, Logic discipline (2023).

TUDOR ALEXE - 12th grade student at the National College "Unirea" Turnu Magurele, mathematics-informatics profile, founding member of the "Club of applied logic, linguistics and critical/creative thinking" of the College, participation in the National Linguistics Olympiad "Solomon Marcus" (2022), the 3rd prize and the special prize - National Socio-Human Sciences Olympiad, Economics discipline (2023).

Writing this book was a remarkable didactic experience from several points of view. First, it brought together in the same effort people who did not think this was possible. Then, he tested the limits of understanding and self-transcendence, building the new from the old and bringing to the surface psychic and intellectual resources that no one suspected existed in the depths. Last but not least, he managed to illustrate a pedagogical ideal expressed by Noica: the school where nothing is taught, except states of mind, the school where the teacher also learns, continuously, even from the students, in which, from this perspective , "one does not know who gives and who receives." (Leon Bloy).
This is how this book was born, responding to the learning needs of our students, surprised by the novelty and difficulty of the logic and critical thinking subjects introduced, starting with the year 2022, in the entrance exam, by a decision of the management of the Faculty of Law, University of Bucharest , from November 24, 2021, accompanied by four subject models. I fully solved the critical thinking and formal logic exercises from these subject models.
And I had noticed something else: not only the students had difficulties in solving, but also the teachers.
To all, we offer a learning guide capable of following the versatility of the thinking of the examiners who make up the subjects and deconstructing, decoding, overcoming the difficulties disguised in natural language (e.g. "everyone can choose several activities/objects, but can also don't choose any of them" is different in meaning and logical content, therefore also as a formalization of "everyone can choose several activities/objects, but can also not choose any of them") or in the logical structure of one or the other of subjects, in their deceptive appearance, so similar to each other, in their constitutive essence, so different from each other.
In other words, we responded to versatility with versatility and diversity, bringing to the scene more solution possibilities, through several methods proposed as a solution: in chapter I we proposed two methods and we would have even had three, but the third one not having the universality necessary, we gave up on making it known; in chapter II, also two methods for solving reasoning with compound sentences; in chapter III, we have at our disposal, exposed, three methods, each having its "virtues", such as accuracy for the formalization method, speed for the natural deduction method or speculative character, originality and speed for the intuitive-speculative method; and finally, in chapter IV, which includes both reasoning with compound sentences and syllogisms, and which appears only in the models made public by the Faculty of Law in November 2021, I set out the same two methods from chapter II for reasoning with compound sentences and three methods for testing the validity of the syllogism, faster and with less possibility of making a mistake than the classic and dusty, now obsolete, method of Venn diagrams.
It should be remembered here that during the writing of this book, two of the authors, the seniors, created a fourth method of solving the type of problem that they called "the problem of relationally conditioned choice", the problem treated in this chapter, the method which somehow, cumulatively has all the "virtues" of the other methods mentioned above. Since this guide is written for students, future candidates for the Faculty of Law, we chose (painful choice) not to make it public, yet, in order not to make the book too dense. In addition, the logical calculation within this fourth method requires more in-depth knowledge, which most of the time a student does not have, but which the teacher can pass on to him.
Iterative combinatorial calculation, that's how we named our innovative method and decided to publish it later, separately, in a guide for teachers.
We hope that you will use the result of our effort that has metamorphosed into this book.
Parallel to the book, and somehow starting from its issue, we founded in our college, a college with an age of 135 years, the "Club of applied logic, linguistics and critical/creative thinking", the authors of the book being also founding members of this club, where the juniors, 20 in number, are now caught in a creative approach around some critical thinking problems and in another intellectual approach, translating "into our language" a useful and extremely attractive and synthetic book, an introduction to logic . This is how we understand promoting students as authors and translators, attracting them to the land, full of innovative surprises, of thinking, of knowledge, of ideas.
In conclusion, we would like to thank Mr. Vasile Muscalu, the director of the University Publishing House, for his openness to our project and who handled the publication of this book with great care and professionalism.

Authors

Introduction / 7

Chapter I
The first type of topics: "Which of the following sentences is true under the same circumstances as this one?"
/ 9
Compound sentences / 11
I. Definition / Structure / Propositional operators / 11
II. The properties of the main propositional operators / 13
III. Logical operator properties / 14
IV. Arguments with compound sentences / 16
Models of grids given in the admission contests to the Faculty of Law / 20
I was practicing! Grids proposed for solving / 29

Chapter II
The second type of topics: "What follows from this?"
/ 33
Subject model / 35
Subject – Grid 1-simulation / 41
Proposed problems / 45

Chapter III
The third type of subjects: "Let the text be" - relationally conditioned choices
/ 49

Chapter IV
The fourth type of subjects: "Let the reasoning be the following" - correct/incorrect reasonings
/ 143
Subject model / 145
Proposed (logical-playful) problems / 158

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