Financial Audit. Theoretical and Practical Approach

Editura Universitara
-27%
95,00 Lei 69,35 Lei

ISBN: 978-606-28-1171-6

DOI: https://doi.org/10.5689/9786062811716

Publisher year: 2020

Edition: I

Pages:

Publisher: Editura Universitara

Author: Victor Munteanu - coordonator

In stock
Stock limit
- +
Add to cart
Product Code: 9786062811716 Do you need help? 0745 200 718 / 0745 200 357
Add to wishlist Request information
  • Description
  • Download (1)
  • Authors
  • Content
  • More details
  • Where to find it
  • Reviews (0)

I confess that I was pleasantly surprised when the authors of this paper sent me the invitation to preface it. The reading gave me the conviction that it is a valuable book, written by professionals, led by the coordinator, and addressed, both to professionals and not only.
The book coordinated by prof. Univ. Dr. Victor Munteanu "Financial audit - methodological approach and practical cases" begins by classifying, according to international standards and practice in the field, the concept of audit, different types of financial audit, stopping at what international standards and the VIII th European Directive defines as "statutory audit", meaning the financial audit performed on the financial statements of an entity, as a whole.
Presenting the entire flow of mandatory works to be performed according to the minimum rules, in their logical sequence, starting with the planning of the financial-accounting audit and until the elaboration of the audit report and documentation of the works, the book is a reference work in the field, that can be used successfully by students (bachelor and master), trainee auditors, financial auditors and other specialists eager to penetrate and deepen the practices in this profession, and through practical cases is a real guide for financial auditors in the exercise of their profession.
Note the outfit and the pedagogical presentation of the paper, which facilitates the reading and learning activity of young economists, trainee auditors, but also of business managers.
I believe in the full success of this book that enriches the collection of the coordinator who is not at his first work in the field.



  • Financial Audit. Theoretical and Practical Approach

    Download
VICTOR MUNTEANU - Coordonator 
GRATIELA DUTA 
JANINA SOARE 

PREFACE / 11

FOREWORD / 13

ESSENTIAL TERMS USED IN THE FINANCIAL AUDIT / 15

CHAPTER 1
FINANCIAL AUDIT - HISTORY, ROLE, TYPES / 21
1.1. Highlights regarding the historical evolution of the audit / 21
1.1.1. Evolution of global audit / 21
1.1.2. Development of the audit in Romania / 31
1.2. The role of the audit versus the auditor / 37
1.3. The importance of the audit approach / 39
1.4. Limits and general considerations regarding the audit approach / 41
1.5. Types of audit / 41
1.6. Activities carried out within the limits of competences / 46
1.7. Audit: theories, postulates, concept / 46
1.7.1. Audit theory / 47
1.7.2. Audit requirements / 47
1.7.3. Audit concepts / 50

CHAPTER 2
THE NEED FOR FINANCIAL AUDIT AND INSURANCE SERVICES / 52
2.1. Defining the financial audit / 52
2.2. Objectives of the financial audit / 54
2.2.1. Management assertions (statements) regarding the content of the annual financial statements / reports / 54
2.2.2. General objectives regarding the categories of reflected transactions
in the turnover of accounts / 55
2.2.3. General objectives regarding account balances / 55
2.2.4. Objectives / general / regarding the content and presentation of the financial statements / reports / 56
2.3. Regulations in the field of audit of financial statements in Romania / 57
2.3.1. Adoption / Directive / Union / European / no. / 2006/43 / EC
of 2006, regarding the statutory audit / 57
2.3.2. Regulations in the field of statutory audit in Romania / 58
2.4. Self-assessment tests and questions / 62
2.4.1. Grid tests / 62
2.4.2. Self-assessment questions / 63

CHAPTER 3
AUDIT RESPONSIBILITIES AND OBJECTIVES / 65
3.1 Purpose of performing a financial audit mission / 65
3.2. Responsibilities of the entity's management regarding the preparation of financial statements / reports / 66
3.3. Responsibilities of the financial auditor regarding the audit of financial statements / reports / 69
3.4. Responsibility / financial auditor regarding the discovery of significant errors (distortions) / 71
3.5. Self-assessment tests and questions / 75
3.5.1. Grid tests / 75
3.5.2. Self-assessment questions / 76

CHAPTER 4
PROFESSIONAL ETHICS IN AUDIT / 77
4.1. Code of ethics in the field of financial audit / 77
4.2. Integrity and objectivity / 83
4.3. Professional competence / 83
4.4. Confidentiality / 84
4.5. Professional behavior / 85

CHAPTER 5
PLANNING, SIGNIFICANCE THRESHOLD AND AUDIT RISKS / 86
5.1. Preliminary activities for carrying out a financial audit mission / 87
5.2. Agreement on the terms of the financial-accounting audit mission - mission letter / 88
5.2.1. Identification of the financial reporting framework applicable for the preparation of financial statements / 89
5.2.2. Acceptance of changes regarding the terms of the audit mission / 89
5.2.3. Example of Mission Letter / 90
5.3. General knowledge of the client; preliminary analytical procedures / 91
5.4. Significance threshold in the financial audit / 93
5.5. Assessment of risks specific to financial audit / 95
5.5.1. Inherent risk (IR) / 96
5.5.2. Control risk (RC) / 100
5.5.3. Risk of undetection (RN) / 100
5.6. Understanding the internal control and the accounting system of the entity / 105
5.6.1. Procedures for obtaining an agreement on internal control / 106
5.7. General strategy and financial audit plan / 109
5.8. Application case / 113
5.9. Grid tests and self-assessment questions / 121
5.9.1. Grid tests / 121
5.9.2. Self-assessment questions / 122

CHAPTER 6
AUDIT TESTS / 123
6.1. Concepts of evidence and financial audit procedures / 123
6.2. Degree of adequacy and sufficiency of financial audit evidence / 124
6.3. Procedures for collecting financial audit evidence / 127
6.4. Financial audit tests / 132
6.4.1. Risk assessment tests / 132
6.4.2. Tests of controls / 135
6.4.3. Substantive procedures / 135
6.5. Grid tests and self-assessment questions / 137
6.5.1. Grid tests / 137
6.5.2. Self-assessment questions / 138

CHAPTER 7
AUDIT PROCESS / 139
7.1. Preliminary stage / 140
7.2. Planning stage / 141
7.3. Field work stage - financial audit approach / 142
7.3.1. Evaluation of internal control / 143
7.3.2. Application of substantive procedures / 146
7.3.3. Performing detailed tests on operations (transactions) / 150
7.3.4. Application of detailed tests on balances / 150
7.3.5. Application of analytical procedures / 152
7.4. Grid tests and self-assessment questions / 155
7.4.1. Grid tests / 155
7.4.2. Self-assessment questions / 156

CHAPTER 8
AUDIT OF THE ACCOUNTS INCLUDED IN THE FINANCIAL STATEMENTS / 157
8.1. General aspects and rules of procedure regarding the audit (control) of the accounts included in the financial statements / 157
8.2. Audit / (control) of the accounts included in the statement of financial position / balance sheet / 163
8.2.1. Audit of capital accounts / 163
8.2.2. Audit of fixed assets and depreciation / 166
8.2.3 Inventory audit / 170
8.2.4. Audit of accounts receivable / 173
8.2.5. Audit of treasury accounts / 176
8.2.6. Audit of creditors' accounts / 179
8.2.7. Audit of tax accounts / 182
8.3. Audit of the situation of the financial position (balance sheet) as a whole / 184
8.4. Audit (control) of the accounts included in the statement of comprehensive income / profit and loss account / 190
8.5. Audit of cash flows / 194
8.6. Grid tests and self-assessment questions / 196
8.6.1. Grid tests / 196
8.6.2. Self-assessment questions / 198

CHAPTER 9
AUDIT OF INITIAL BALANCES AND EVENTS AFTER THE DATE OF PREPARATION OF THE FINANCIAL STATEMENTS / 199
9.1. Audit of initial balances / 199
9.1.1. Correction of errors from previous accounting periods / 201
9.1.2. Auditing changes in accounting policies or methods / 204
9.2. Auditing / recognizing or presenting in the financial statements the subsequent events / 204
9.3. Auditing accounting estimates / 206

CHAPTER 10
FRAUD AND ERROR IN THE FINANCIAL AUDIT / 210
10.1. Characteristics of fraud and error / 210
10.2. Responsibilities regarding fraud prevention and detection / 211
10.3. Fraud risk assessment procedures / 212
10.4. Responses to the risks assessed by significant misstatement as a result of fraud / 213
10.5. Application case / 214
10.6. Self-assessment questions / 216

CHAPTER 11
AUDIT DOCUMENTATION / 217
11.1. The need to prepare documentation in a financial audit mission / 217
11.2. Form and content of working documents / 218
11.3. Worksheets / 220
11.4. Work files: exercise file and permanent file / 221
11.4.1. Exercise file / current / annual file / 221
11.4.2. Permanent file / 225
11.5. Grid tests and self-assessment questions / 227
11.5.1. Grid tests / 227
11.5.2. Self-assessment questions / 228

CHAPTER 12
COMPLETION OF THE AUDIT / 229
12.1. Elaboration of conclusions, issuing the opinion and drawing up the financial audit report / 229
12.2. Types of opinions and financial audit reports / 233
12.3. Grid tests and self-assessment questions / 236
12.3.1. Grid tests / 236
12.3.2. Self-assessment questions / 237

CHAPTER 13
QUALITY CONTROL OF THE FINANCIAL-ACCOUNTING AUDIT ACTIVITY / 238
13.1. Policies and procedures regarding the quality control of the financial audit company (cabinet) / 238
13.2. Quality control carried out by the member auditors of the Romanian Chamber of Financial Auditors / 241

CHAPTER 14
PRACTICAL CASES OF FINANCIAL AUDIT / 243
I. Audit regarding tangible fixed assets and depreciation / 243
1.1. Customer information / 243
1.2. Audit request / 246
1.3. Acceptance of the mandate / 246
1.4. Audit objectives regarding tangible fixed assets / 252
1.5. Approach to the audit of coral assets accounts / 254
II. Audit on treasury accounts / 271
2.1. Request for a financial treasury audit / 271
2.2. Auditor 's letter of commitment / 271
2.3. Customer presentation / 271
2.4. Financial audit contract / 274
2.5. Acceptance of the mandate / 274
2.6. Confidentiality commitment / 274
2.7. Knowing the customer / 274
2.8. Significance threshold / 274
2.9. Risk analysis / 275
2.10. Minimum audit procedures / 275
2.11. Financial audit report of treasury accounts / 306
III. Audit regarding the profit and loss account / 308
3.1. Presentation of the audited company / 308
3.2. Signing the audit contract / 309
3.3. Audit orientation and planning / 318
3.4. Audit objectives - overview / 319
3.5. Audit tests - overview / 320
3.6. Audit evidence - overview / 322
3.7. The system of primary documents and their informational flow / 331
3.8. Approach to the audit of income and expenditure accounts and profit and loss account / 331
3.9. Audit report / 367
IV. Financial audit on personnel accounts, insurance and social protection / 368
4.1. Accepting the mandate and contracting the financial audit / 368
4.2. Financial audit mission planning / 377
4.3. General presentation regarding the development of the financial audit mission / 379
4.4. Assessment of internal control / 390
4.5. Control of accounts / 392
4.6. Financial audit report / 400
V. Financial audit regarding the budget execution at a public institution / 401
5.1. Dr. Victor Babes Hospital - general presentation / 402
5.2. Audit of budget execution accounts at public institutions / 408
5.3. Audit mission / 424
5.4. Audit report / 436
Annexes to the practical case regarding the audit of the budget execution accounts / 439
VI. Financial audit regarding the financing from non-reimbursable / structural funds / 463
6.1. Project description / 463
6.2. Presentation of the financing contract / 466
6.3. Audit procedures performed and actual findings / 467
6.4. Report on the findings regarding the verification of the expenses incurred within the project / 472

SELECTIVE BIBLIOGRAPHY / 475

 

In close connection with the current evolutions of the economic situation, worldwide, as well as in our country, the financial auditor is the professional who contributes to a significant extent, to the sanitation of the economic climate and to the restoration of confidence in initiatives, honest and pertinent measures. economic crisis.
Through professionalism, attitude, independence and transparency in carrying out financial audit missions, by preparing quality reports, the financial auditor satisfies the public interest in the fairness of the business subject to its evaluation, while fulfilling an important social role.
The expectations of the business environment and in general of the beneficiaries of the audit reports towards the financial auditors are mainly related to the performance of quality audit missions, able to provide pertinent assurances regarding the reality and correctness of the information contained in the financial statements.
Thus, a very important message can be given regarding the state of health of the audited entities. In the world of business worldwide, the names of audit firms have sometimes been corroborated by failure or fraud in large-scale scandals. Fortunately, such situations did not arise in our country, the Romanian financial auditors enjoying a good reputation.
n this context, the paper deals with the study of the general principles and professional norms of financial-accounting audit, both from a theoretical-conceptual point of view and from a practical-applied point of view. His methodological-didactic approach aims to offer those interested the most efficient ways to understand and deepen all aspects related to financial audit, to form a logical, independent thinking in practicing this profession, as well as the skills needed to audit financial statements.
From the issue of financial audit, the aspects regarding the principles and rules specific to financial audit were chosen and presented; the definition, objectives and regulations of the financial audit; the conceptual framework of financial audit missions; ethical principles of financial auditors; planning a financial audit mission; financial audit evidence and procedures for their collection; the stages of accomplishing a financial audit mission; the audit of the accounts included in the financial statements; fraud and error in the financial audit; documentation of financial audit works; the conclusions of the audit, the issuance of the opinion and the elaboration of the financial audit report.
In this sense, the paper is addressed, first of all, to those who in the faculties (license and master) or other forms of professional training study the financial-accounting audit.
It is intended, secondly, for trainees and practitioners in the field of financial-accounting audit, accounting experts, financial analysts and other specialists who want to deepen the informational values ​​of this field.
All of them are offered the issue of organizing, managing and carrying out within the limits of the international standards of (accounting and audit) and of the normative acts in the field elaborated in our country, of a financial audit commitment.
When writing the paper we used a rich foreign legislation and literature, but especially local. We thank the Romanian normalizers, the professional body (Chamber of Financial Auditors) in the field, for their efforts to create and then improve a competitive financial audit system.
We also appreciate the interest and professional competence of specialists in higher education, research and practice in the field of financial-accounting audit for books, studies and our own views that have seen the light of day and that have been of real use to us in writing. works.
We enjoyed the qualified support of the publishing house, the printing house, the editor and the word processors, who took care of the operative preparation and the appearance in the best conditions of the work, for which we thank them.
We thank, a priori, our readers, students (bachelor and master), trainees, teachers, specialists who will have the patience and interest to read and use this book.
We are aware that the work can be improved, that it can be the subject of critical reflections, suggestions and proposals. Therefore, we will be grateful to all for the recommendations sent, which we are waiting for with due attention and which we will receive with pleasure and distinguished consideration and we will consider them in a possible edition.

Bucharest, October 2020

On behalf of the authors,

Coordinator,
Prof. univ. Dr. Victor Munteanu

www.editurauniversitara.ro

write a review


Customer Support Monday - Friday, between 8.00 - 16.00

0745 200 718 0745 200 357 comenzi@editurauniversitara.ro
close

Compare

You must add at least one product to compare products.

close

Was added to wishlist!

Was removed from wishlist!