Editura Universitara Commercial Transactions. From National to International

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ISBN: 978-606-28-0579-1

DOI: 10.5682/9786062805791

Publisher year: 2017

Edition: III, revizuita si adaugita

Pages: 204

Publisher: Universitară

Author: Oana Mionel

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The paper presents basic notions for commercial transactions. In making this book we started from the emergence and evolution of commercial transactions and we continued with the forms of export, the sale-purchase contract, tools and methods of payment, transactions, techniques of commercial transactions, commodity exchanges and trade fairtrade.
The paper is structured on 11 chapters, all chapters are written in a style accessible to students and other readers, but with clear details on all specialized terms used in the field of economics and international business.
  • Tranzactii comerciale. De la national la international

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OANA MIONEL
Doctor in economics, title awarded by the Academy of Economic Studies and, at the same time, associate professor at the Faculty of International Economic Relations within the "Dimitrie Cantemir" Christian University.
The author of this paper teaches at the mentioned faculty the subjects: Technique of international payments and financing and International stock exchanges.

Foreword / 9

CHAPTER 1
THE EVOLUTION OF COMMERCIAL TRANSACTIONS
/ 11
1.1. History of commercial transactions / 11
1.2. The new world economy / 14
1.2.1. Regionalization and economic integration / 14
1.2.2. Globalization of the world economy / 18
1.2.3. Electronic economy / 28

CHAPTER 2
COMMERCIAL TRANSACTIONS - FROM BARTER TO A CLICK DISTANCE
/ 30
2.1. The scope of the concept of commercial transactions / 30
2.2. Taxonomy of commercial transactions / 35
2.3. Business internationalization and motivational factors / 39
2.4. Reference methods in carrying out commercial transactions / 48
2.4.1. Direct export / 48
2.4.2. Export through intermediaries / 51
2.4.3. Indirect export / 55

CHAPTER 3
COMMERCIAL CORRESPONDENCE: SUPPLY, OFFER REQUEST AND ORDER
/ 56
3.1. Offer / 57
3.1.1. Offer definition and offer classification / 57
3.1.2. Content and writing of the offer / 58
3.1.3. Supply structure / 59
3.1.4. Formulas used in drafting the offer / 62
3.2. Request for offer / 66
3.2.1. The concept and object of the offer request / 66
3.2.2. Classification of tenders / 66
3.2.3. Conditions for drafting a tender / 67
3.3. Order / 70
3.3.1. The notion of command / 70
3.3.2. Order classification / 70
3.3.3. The structure of an order / 72

CHAPTER 4
INTERNATIONAL SALE-PURCHASE CONTRACT OF GOODS
/ 74
4.1. Conceptual framework / 74
4.2. Elements of the international sale-purchase contract of goods / 76
4.3. INCOTERMS delivery conditions 2010/85

CHAPTER 5.
PAYMENT INSTRUMENTS USED IN COMMERCIAL TRANSACTIONS
/ 89
5.1. Check / 89
5.2. Traveler's check / 94
5.3. Promissory note / 97
5.4. Payment order / 98
5.5. Payment order for the State Treasury / 99
5.6. Bank guarantee letter / 101

CHAPTER 6
ELECTRONIC PAYMENTS
/ 105
6.1. Contactless bracelet / 105
6.2. Bank card / 106
6.3. Electronic payment order / 110
6.4. Electronic check / 111
6.5. Electronic signature. / 111
6.6. Electronic banking and internet banking / 114

CHAPTER 7
DOCUMENTARY ACCREDITIVE AND DOCUMENTARY COLLECTION
/ 119
7.1. Documentary letter of credit / 119
7.1.1. Definition and characteristics of the documentary letter of credit / 119
7.1.2. The parties involved in the development of the documentary letter of credit / 120
7.1.3. Contracts and the mechanism of conducting the documentary letter of credit / 122
7.1.4. Taxonomy of documentary letters of credit / 124
7.1.5. The documents used in the payment of the documentary letter of credit / 130
7.1.6. Advantages and disadvantages of using the documentary letter of credit / 132
7.2. Documentary collection / 133
7.2.1. Definition and characteristics of the documentary collection / 133
7.2.2. The parties involved in the conduct of the documentary collection / 134
7.2.3. The mechanism for carrying out the documentary collection. / 136
7.2.4. Advantages and disadvantages of using the documentary collection / 137

CHAPTER 8
CONDUCT OF COMMERCIAL TRANSACTIONS
/ 139
8.1. Preparation of delivery of goods for export / 139
8.2. International Expedition / 143
8.3. Goods insurance / 145
8.4. Customs clearance / 147
8.5. Contractual liability / 150

CHAPTER 9
TECHNIQUES FOR CARRYING OUT INTERNATIONAL TRADE TRANSACTIONS
/ 152
9.1. Combined business operations / 152
9.1.1. Counterpart / 152
9.1.2. Re-export / 154
9.1.3. Lohnul / 155
9.2. Complex commercial operations / 156
9.2.1. International transfer of technology and knowledge / 156
9.2.2 Franchise / 157
9.2.3. Leasing / 161

CHAPTER 10
INTERNATIONAL GOODS EXCHANGE
/ 169
10.1. The specifics of international commodity exchanges / 169
10.2. Definition of the international commodity exchange / 171
10.3. Functions of international commodity exchanges / 171
10.4. Characteristics of goods traded on the stock exchange / 172
10.5. Commodity exchanges versus international auctions / 173
10.6. The main international commodity exchanges in the world / 178
American market / 178
10.6.1. CME Group / 178
10.6.2. Intercontinental Exchange / 181
European market / 184
10.6.3. Antwerp World Diamond Center / 184
10.6.4. London Metal Exchange / 185
Asian market / 186
10.6.5. Tokyo Commodity Exchange / 186

CHAPTER 11
TRADE IN "FAIR TRADE" PRODUCTS
/ 188
11.1. The notion of "fairtrade" products / 188
11.2. Supermarkets / 191
11.3. Fair trade products / 192
10.4. Where are fairtrade products produced and consumed? / 193
10.5. Internationalization of fair trade? / 197

BIBLIOGRAPHY / 199

The tendencies and mutations appeared at the level of the world economy show us that, at the beginning of the 21st century, the mechanism of commercial transactions was adapted according to the preferences and complex requirements of the economic agents from the country and from abroad.
Thus, this book has been designed to provide an overview of commercial transactions and how the transition from domestic to international commercial transactions has taken place. The paper is addressed primarily to students at the Faculty of Tourism and Commercial Management, but also to other readers interested in the mechanism of operation of commercial transactions.
The paper presents basic notions for commercial transactions. In making this book we started from the emergence and evolution of commercial transactions and we continued with the forms of export, the sale-purchase contract, tools and methods of payment, transactions, techniques of commercial transactions, commodity exchanges and trade fairtrade.
The paper is structured on 11 chapters, all chapters are written in a style accessible to students and other readers, but with clear details on all specialized terms used in the field of economics and international business.
Good luck, dear students!

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