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Editura Universitara Meritocratic requirements in the Romanian school

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Publisher: Editura Universitara

Author: Marin Manolescu

Edition: I

Pages: 394

Publisher year: 2022

ISBN: 978-606-28-1529-5

DOI: 10.5682/9786062815295

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The book "Meritocratic demands in the Romanian school" recently published by the Editura Universitara - Bucharest is a plea for the knowledge, respect and promotion of the valuable traditions of Romanian education, consolidated throughout history, for the appreciation of the work, efforts and results obtained by our students, by our teachers, by our schools. We have students with high potential, recognized, who must be exploited, put to work by well-trained teachers, with pedagogical grace, by families with respect for book science, education. Everything, however, was carried out in a normative, scientific and unaltered political decision-making framework.
Reality abundantly demonstrates the fact that, over time, Romanian schools have produced enlightened minds, prominent personalities of the scientific, cultural, artistic life, etc. who bring honor to Romania, Europe and the whole world. The bio-psycho-social potential of our generations of children and young people is recognized throughout the world.

The key ideas around which the essence of this book is structured are:
The traditions of Romanian education: knowledge, respect, promotion
Promoting meritocracy as a principle of social justice through education;
Maria Sa - the student: respect, trust, appreciation.
The teacher/teacher: professional skills, devotion, respect, motivation, social prestige.

The book "Meritocratic demands in the Romanian school" has the following structure:
Part I - MERITOCRACY - PRINCIPLE OF SOCIAL JUSTICE THROUGH EDUCATION
Part II - ROMANIAN SCHOOL IN NATIONAL AND INTERNATIONAL CONTEXT. A HISTORICAL PERSPECTIVE
Part III - MERITOCRATIC REQUIREMENTS REGARDING TRAINING, EVALUATION AND PROMOTION OF STUDENTS
Part IV - EVALUATION VERSUS MEASUREMENT IN EDUCATION
Part V - MERITOCRATIC REQUIREMENTS IN THE TRAINING AND PERFECTION OF TEACHING STAFF. HISTORICAL LANDMARKS
Part VI - CATALOG OF MINISTERS OF EDUCATION FROM 1859 TO THE PRESENT.

Meritocracy is a principle of social justice through education. A meritocratic society translates school success into social success.
According to current sociological theories, a society is considered meritocratic if each individual has the chance to succeed in life through school and if school success translates into social success.
Mediocracy is the antithesis of meritocracy.
In our conception, there are two typologies of mediocrity:
1. mediocrity satisfied with itself;
2. sailing, arrogant and aggressive mediocrity.

Mediocrity satisfied with itself is equivalent to anonymity, to banality, to banality. The mediocre one in this position lacks initiative, he feels good like that and he takes pleasure in this situation.
Sailing mediocrity is the second pose of mediocrity. The mediocre in this category is arrogant and aggressive, rude and funny. He wants respectability, positions, functions. Its motto is Sticks in wheels. The consequences of installing mediocrity in important positions are multiple. (Marin Manolescu, 2019, "School evaluation. Meritocracy and mediocrity", Editura Universitara).
Unfortunately, specialist Sorin Costreie- tells us, "the school contributes fully to the establishment of mediocracy" (Old Dilemma no. 959 of August 25 - August 31, 2022).

Our work wants to convey some messages

First of all, we want to draw attention to the fact that Romanian education has valuable traditions consolidated historically. These traditions must be known and promoted because "Without history we have no future!". Thus:
The lesson of history must be known, understood, learned and valued;
Valuable traditions must be known, transmitted, respected, capitalized in new contexts;
We need coherence, unity of thought and action;
Educational policies and strategies must be thought by "specialists in pedagogy";
The education system in Romania must be restructured in its entirety, in a coherent, systemic, unitary manner, based on an integrative concept, etc.
The education system in Romania must redefine its identity.

Secondly, our work fulfills the requirements of a pedagogy manual, addressing problems of the history of Romanian and European education, developments, trends and critical aspects regarding the relationship between instruction and education, teacher training, development and evaluation of educational institutions, etc. It combines positive tradition with innovation, offers a historical perspective on Romanian pedagogy in an international context, as well as an x-ray of our school today.
The book "Meritocratic demands in the Romanian school" is an independent work, with a new and current issue; where it was the case, the author used, took over, valorized, developed some ideas, concepts, approaches, even texts from previous works, processed and interpreted according to the issues dealt with in the present book.
This book represents a source of scientific-didactic information and serves both for the pedagogical training of students, for the improvement of teaching staff of all specialties, and for satisfying the knowledge interests of any person who wants to know the traditions of Romanian education.

The meritocratic traditions of the Romanian school are a certainty. Currently, however, the Romanian school is drifting! And the meritocratic function of the school is at a standstill! Knowing the content of this book offers the possibility of showing initiative, invites reflection; we hope, at the same time, that our work will sensitize the beneficiaries, regardless of category, to determine decisions that produce desirable changes, generating pedagogical progress.

Let's be optimistic!
  • Meritocratic requirements in the Romanian school

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Marin Manolescu
— Univ. Prof. PhD at the University of Bucharest, Faculty of Psychology and Educational Sciences, Department for Teacher Training;
— PhD supervisor in Educational Sciences;
— Studies: Faculty of Philosophy, Department of Pedagogy-Romanian, University of Bucharest;
— Completed all stages of the university and pre-university teaching career;
— Established or participated in the establishment or consolidation of prestigious structures/institutions in the field of initial and continuous training of teachers for primary, preschool, secondary and high school levels;
— Performed managerial functions in university, pre-university education, at the ministerial level;
— He is the coordinator/director of the master's program "Mentoring in education", University of Bucharest;
— Received the award of the Romanian Academy for the work "Pedagogy of primary and preschool education" in 2021, coordinator together with Ovidiu Panisoara, Polirom Publishing House, Iasi;
— Fields of scientific and didactic competence: Theory, methodology and evaluation practice. Curriculum theory and methodology, Initial and continuous training of teaching staff, Pedagogy of primary and preschool education; Early education; Professional and pedagogical practice.

By the same author (selective):
The practice of research in the sciences of education. Critical problems, diagnosis, action (coordinator), 2021, University Publishing House, Bucharest;
Pedagogy of primary and preschool education (coordinator together with Ovidiu Panisoara), 2019, Polirom Publishing House, Iasi;
Evaluation in education. Meritocracy and mediocrity, 2019, University Publishing House, Bucharest;
Monograph of education in the villages of Bobicesti Commune, Olt County (in collaboration with Paula Banica), 2018, Reprograph Publishing House, Craiova;
Reference in school evaluation, 2015, University Publishing House, Bucharest;
Innovative perspectives of evaluation. Digital evaluation, 2016, University Publishing House, Bucharest;
Evaluation theory and methodology, 2010, University Publishing House, Bucharest;
Evaluative activity between cognition and metacognition, 2005, Meteor Press Publishing House, Bucharest;
Curriculum for primary and preschool education. Theory and practice, 2006, Bucharest University Publishing House ̶  CREDIS;
School evaluation - a pedagogical contract, 2003, Dimitrie Bolintineanu Foundation Publishing House, Bucharest;
Theory and practice of evaluation (in collaboration with Dan Potolea), 2005, MEN-PIR, Bucharest;
Curriculum theory and methodology (in collaboration with Dan Potolea), 2005, MEN-PIR, Bucharest.

The book "Meritocratic demands in the Romanian school" recently published by the Editura Universitara - Bucharest is a plea for the knowledge, respect and promotion of the valuable traditions of Romanian education, consolidated throughout history, for the appreciation of the work, efforts and results obtained by our students, by our teachers, by our schools. We have students with high potential, recognized, who must be exploited, put to work by well-trained teachers, with pedagogical grace, by families with respect for book science, education. Everything, however, was carried out in a normative, scientific and unaltered political decision-making framework.
Reality abundantly demonstrates the fact that, over time, Romanian schools have produced enlightened minds, prominent personalities of the scientific, cultural, artistic life, etc. who bring honor to Romania, Europe and the whole world. The bio-psycho-social potential of our generations of children and young people is recognized throughout the world.

The key ideas around which the essence of this book is structured are:
The traditions of Romanian education: knowledge, respect, promotion
Promoting meritocracy as a principle of social justice through education;
Maria Sa - the student: respect, trust, appreciation.
The teacher/teacher: professional skills, devotion, respect, motivation, social prestige.

The book "Meritocratic demands in the Romanian school" has the following structure:
Part I - MERITOCRACY - PRINCIPLE OF SOCIAL JUSTICE THROUGH EDUCATION
Part II - ROMANIAN SCHOOL IN NATIONAL AND INTERNATIONAL CONTEXT. A HISTORICAL PERSPECTIVE
Part III - MERITOCRATIC REQUIREMENTS REGARDING TRAINING, EVALUATION AND PROMOTION OF STUDENTS
Part IV - EVALUATION VERSUS MEASUREMENT IN EDUCATION
Part V - MERITOCRATIC REQUIREMENTS IN THE TRAINING AND PERFECTION OF TEACHING STAFF. HISTORICAL LANDMARKS
Part VI - CATALOG OF MINISTERS OF EDUCATION FROM 1859 TO THE PRESENT.

Meritocracy is a principle of social justice through education. A meritocratic society translates school success into social success.
According to current sociological theories, a society is considered meritocratic if each individual has the chance to succeed in life through school and if school success translates into social success.
Mediocracy is the antithesis of meritocracy.
In our conception, there are two typologies of mediocrity:
1. mediocrity satisfied with itself;
2. sailing, arrogant and aggressive mediocrity.

Mediocrity satisfied with itself is equivalent to anonymity, to banality, to banality. The mediocre one in this position lacks initiative, he feels good like that and he takes pleasure in this situation.
Sailing mediocrity is the second pose of mediocrity. The mediocre in this category is arrogant and aggressive, rude and funny. He wants respectability, positions, functions. Its motto is Sticks in wheels. The consequences of installing mediocrity in important positions are multiple. (Marin Manolescu, 2019, "School evaluation. Meritocracy and mediocrity", Editura Universitara).
Unfortunately, specialist Sorin Costreie- tells us, "the school contributes fully to the establishment of mediocracy" (Old Dilemma no. 959 of August 25 - August 31, 2022).

Our work wants to convey some messages

First of all, we want to draw attention to the fact that Romanian education has valuable traditions consolidated historically. These traditions must be known and promoted because "Without history we have no future!". Thus:
The lesson of history must be known, understood, learned and valued;
Valuable traditions must be known, transmitted, respected, capitalized in new contexts;
We need coherence, unity of thought and action;
Educational policies and strategies must be thought by "specialists in pedagogy";
The education system in Romania must be restructured in its entirety, in a coherent, systemic, unitary manner, based on an integrative concept, etc.
The education system in Romania must redefine its identity.

Secondly, our work fulfills the requirements of a pedagogy manual, addressing problems of the history of Romanian and European education, developments, trends and critical aspects regarding the relationship between instruction and education, teacher training, development and evaluation of educational institutions, etc. It combines positive tradition with innovation, offers a historical perspective on Romanian pedagogy in an international context, as well as an x-ray of our school today.
The book "Meritocratic demands in the Romanian school" is an independent work, with a new and current issue; where it was the case, the author used, took over, valorized, developed some ideas, concepts, approaches, even texts from previous works, processed and interpreted according to the issues dealt with in the present book.
This book represents a source of scientific-didactic information and serves both for the pedagogical training of students, for the improvement of teaching staff of all specialties, and for satisfying the knowledge interests of any person who wants to know the traditions of Romanian education.

The meritocratic traditions of the Romanian school are a certainty. Currently, however, the Romanian school is drifting! And the meritocratic function of the school is at a standstill! Knowing the content of this book offers the possibility of showing initiative, invites reflection; we hope, at the same time, that our work will sensitize the beneficiaries, regardless of category, to determine decisions that produce desirable changes, generating pedagogical progress.

Let's be optimistic!

PREFACE / 17

PART I. MERITOCRACY - PRINCIPLE OF SOCIAL JUSTICE THROUGH EDUCATION / 25

Chapter I. MERITOCRACY - MODEL OF SOCIAL JUSTICE / 25
1. "Brain / mind" + performance + character = modern foundations of meritocracy / 25
2. Meritocracy versus mediocracy in modern society / 27
2.1. The meritocratic perspective / 27
2.2. The mediocratic perspective / 28
2.2.1. Mediocrity satisfied with itself / 29
2.2.2. The arrogant and aggressive mediocrity/Veileitara mediocrity / 30
2.2.2.1. Ifosul mediocrity: honor, rights, positions / 30
2.2.2.2. The arrogant and aggressive mediocrity, boorish and mischievous / 31
2.2.2.3. "Bete-n rote"- motto of the arrogant and aggressive mediocre / 31
3. The post-December Romanian reality: "the disease of the wrong man in the wrong place" / 32
4. Is the legitimization of meritocracy legitimate? / 33
5. The predominance of hereditary in the "merit" structure and in the promotion of meritocracy / 33
6. Social "rank" and its crisis of legitimacy; the remedy through education / 35
7. Representations of public opinion about meritocracy / 35
8. Hereditary endowment - "meritocratic start" advantage / 36
9. The role of education/school in social ascent / 37

Chapter II. SCHOOL MERITOCRACY AND SOCIAL MERITOCRACY. DETERMINATIONS AND INTERDEPENDENCES / 39
1. School meritocracy and social meritocracy - related concepts / 39
1.1. A meritocratic society translates school success into social success / 39
1.2. Is scholastic meritocracy our social "elevator"? / 40
1.3. "Schooling" meritocracy / 40
1.4. School hierarchy - principle of legitimation of hierarchy and social differentiation / 40
1.5. Does school really determine social meritocracy? / 41
2. The primacy of "school merit" in social ascent / 42
2.1. Let's be what we are based on merit - the major desiderata of the meritocratic conception! / 42
2.2. Social meritocracy = reward for scholastic merit / 42
2.3. The role of school evaluation in promoting meritocracy / 43
2.4. School merits - predictors of social success / 44
2.5. The meaning of "school merit". Questions and dilemmas / 45
2.6. Conversion of school credit into social credit / 45
2.7. Academic merit - competition - classification / 46
2.8. School rankings - foreshadowing of social hierarchies / 46
3. Social merit legitimized by school and university diplomas / 47
3.1. Diploma - the strong argument in the recognition of scholastic merits / 47
3.2. Diploma - passport for life / 47
3.3. Diploma - predictor of material well-being? / 49
3.4. The tyranny of diplomas as a state of mind / 50
3.5. The obsessive rush for diplomas and school titles / 50

Chapter III. MERITOCRATIC TRADITIONS OF THE ROMANIAN SCHOOL / 52
1. School - vector for promoting meritocratic principles and values ​​/ 52
1.1. The meritocratic vocation of the Romanian school / 52
1.2. The historical emergence of the idea of ​​school meritocracy / 52
1.3. School - a vector for promoting meritocracy / 53
1.4. School - the source of reproduction and legitimization of social inequalities / 54
1.5. The essence of the meritocratic conception: school inequalities - the consequence of personal inequalities / 55
1.6. The meritocratic school - an illusion? / 56
1.7. School - guarantor of a fair competition / 56
1.8. School customs of the meritocratic ideology / 57
1.9. The role of teachers in promoting school meritocracy / 57
2. Evaluation, scholastic merit, competition and elitism / 58
2.1. Elitism and "coronita" / 58
2.2. School and competition; scholastic merit as a source of elitism / 60
2.3. The students' award and "coronita" today: between contestation and valorization / 61
2.4. School evaluation, meritocracy and mediocrity / 63
2.5. Legitimation of school merits through assessment / 64
2.6. The meritocratic ideal and school evaluation / 65
2.7. A correct evaluation - a major condition of meritocracy / 66

PART II. ROMANIAN SCHOOL IN NATIONAL AND INTERNATIONAL CONTEXT. A HISTORICAL PERSPECTIVE / 68

Chapter I. ROMANIAN EDUCATION IN THE MODERN AND CONTEMPORARY ERA / 68
1. History of Romanian education - integral part of national history / 68
2. The right to education, compulsory and free schooling - the basis of the construction of the modern democratic society / 69
3. From selective school to mainstream democratic school / 72
4. The evolution of Romanian education: reforming stages / 73

Chapter II. ROMANIAN EDUCATION IN THE PERIOD OF THE NATIONAL AWAKENING (until the Little Union/1859) / 75
1. The beginnings of modern Romanian education / 75
2. Concerns regarding the organization and reorganization of education before the Cuza Law / 76
3. Scholars of honorable founders forever! / 78
3.1. Education in Transylvania. Transylvanian School / 78
3.1.1. Suplex Libellus Valachorum - the struggle program of the Romanian nation, the synthesis of the Romanian Enlightenment / 78
3.1.2. Samuil Micu, Petru Maior, Gheorghe Sincai, Ion Budai Deleanu "claim the right of the political nation of the Romanian people" / 79
3.2. Founders of Romanian education in Muntenia and Moldova / 82
3.2.1. Founders of the Romanian school - outstanding personalities of the Enlightenment / 82
3.2.2. Emblematic figures in Muntenia and Moldova: Gheorghe Lazar, Gheorghe Asachi, Petrache Poenaru, Ion Heliade Radulescu / 82
4. The beginning of the establishment of a coherent education system / 86
4.1. The first village schools / 86
4.2. Tudor's proclamation: "the great monasteries must be forced to close the school" / 87
4.3. From the Organic Regulation to the Revolution of 1848/pasoptista / 88
4.3.1. "The Romanian education system is, to some extent, under the sign of the Organic Regulation" / 88
4.3.2. The organization of Romanian education through the Organic Regulation of 1831 / 90
4.4. Administration of public schools / 92
4.5. Enrollment of students at school / 94
4.6. Alexandru Dimitrie Ghica - "the first founder of Romanian schools" / 95
4.7. Lancasterian/Monitorial education / 96
4.7.1. Monitoring system / 96
4.7.2. Sloboda Obteasca School from Golesti - model of Lancasterian school in Romania / 97
4.8. Recruitment of teachers / 97
4.9. Teacher training / 99
4.9.1. The candidate had to know how to read "fluently", to write beautifully and "clearly", to "know the book ... for searching for sick cattle" / 99
4.9.2. Teacher's certificate at the end of the courses / 99
4.9.3. The teacher's oath / 101
4.10. Educational plans. Communal school curriculum / 102
4.11. Educational books printed in the 18th century / 102
4.12. Educational books printed in the 19th century; .from the translated textbooks to the textbooks edited in Romania / 103
4.13. Public examinations / 106
5. From the Revolution of 1848 to the Union of Principalities / 107
5.1. From ecstasy to agony. Closing schools, persecuting teachers / 107
5.2. The reopening of schools - a difficult process, amplified by the "threat" of the external factor in concert with that of "internal pacification" of the "rebellious spirits" / 108
5.3. Themes of major interest that occupied "in all countries, as well as in ours, ... the minds and intentions of governments" / 109
5.3.1. Teacher training, organization of the education system, programs and textbooks / 109
5.3.2. Ion Maiorescu - prestigious personality in the organization of education / 110

Chapter III. EDUCATION DURING THE CONSOLIDATION OF NATIONAL UNITY AND INDEPENDENCE (1859‑1877‑1918) / 112
1. Alexandru Ioan Cuza - the reformer of Romanian education. "School in every village"... "to feed the young generation with intellectual bread" /     112
2. "Making" Cuza's Law - a difficult undertaking / 113
3. School: new times, new problems, new solutions / 114
4. The curriculum "of education in primary schools for boys and girls" from 1864‑1865 / 117
5. Mandatory textbooks in 1864‑1865 / 118
6. Collection of textbooks - images / 119
7. Normal schools – the first vigorous/coherent affirmation of pedagogy in Romanian education / 127
7.1. The establishment of the National Schools (1831) and the national primary institutes (schools) in the county capitals (1838); the general and regional context / 127
7.2. Conceptualization of the notion of "normal school" / 128
7.3. "Teachers cannot be trained anywhere and anytime... There is a need for "special institutions where pedagogy and methodology are studied" / 128
7.4. Preparations - predecessor institutions of normal schools / 129
7.4.1. Preparations from Arad / 129
7.4.2. Preparatory schools in Muntenia / 130
7.4.3. Preparatory schools in Moldova / 130
7.5. A decade of glory of normal schools: 1867‑1877 / 132
7.6. "Someone can know a lot of books, but not know a book because of the one who puts him in a position to teach another"! / 134
7.7. Upper Normal School and Pedagogical Seminaries - institutions for the training of secondary and high school teachers / 135
7.8. The return to the valuable traditions of the normal school in the post-December period / 135
7.9. "Pedagogical profile" today / 137
8. Spiru Haret - a glorious page of Romanian education / 138
9. Constantin Dimitrescu Iasi – the embodiment of pedagogical optimism / 139

Chapter IV. ROMANIAN EDUCATION IN THE INTERWAR PERIOD / 141
1. School - factor of soulful reunification of the Romanian people / 141
2. Prestigious pedagogues and pedagogues in the "pedagogical chaos of time": Stanciu Stoian, Dimitrie Gusti, Stefan Barsanescu, G.G. Antonescu, Iosif Gabrea/142

Chapter V. THE "SOCIALIST CONSTRUCTION" PERIOD (1944‑1989) / 147
1. School: spectacular evolutions and involutions / 147
2. The period 1944-1948: the stage of opening the way to "building the new socialist order" / 148
3. Period 1948‑1956: reforming Romanian education on the Soviet model / 148
4. April 1956-1968: the correction of some errors, the beginnings of normality / 150
5. May 1968‑1978: the return to traditions / 152
6. June 1978-December 1989: national education in an international context. Education Law no. 28/1978 / 154

Chapter VI. THE POST-DECEMBER PERIOD: INNOVATION AND REFORM / 156
1. Education reform - the stake of social and political change / 156
2. Stages in the post-December curricular reform / 156
2.1. Period 1990‑1997: theoretical conceptual elaborations and specific changes in school practice / 157
2.2. Period 1997‑2000: systematization and coherence in the curricular reform / 158
2.3. 2001-present period: new structures, new theoretical concepts and the resizing of curricular flexibility / 158
3. Harmonization of Romanian education with European trends / 159

Chapter VII. TRADITION AND MODERNITY IN PRESCHOOL EDUCATION IN ROMANIA / 161
1. Socio-political contexts. Preschool education in Romania. Historical landmarks / 161
2. Legislation of the development of preschool education in Romania / 163
2.1. From the Little Union to the Great Union / 163
2.2. Harmonization trends after the Great Union. The draft law from the year 1921 / 164
2.3. Decree Law for the Reform of Romanian Education from 1948. A new perspective in preschool education / 166
2.4. The period 1956–1968–1978–1989: evolutionary milestones / 166
2.5. Period 1989 - present: progress or regression? / 167
3. Functions and purposes of preschool education - a historical perspective / 168
3.1. The beginnings of promoting ideas regarding the education of young children / 168
3.2. Law no. 11 of 13.05/1968 and Education and Training Law no. 28/1978 / 169
3.3. The purposes of the kindergarten, today / 170
4. Important curriculum documents in the evolution of preschool education in Romania / 171
5. Imperatives of the current stage regarding the development of early education in Romania / 172

PART III. MERITOCRATIC REQUIREMENTS REGARDING THE TRAINING, EVALUATION AND PROMOTION OF STUDENTS / 173

Chapter I. TRUST IN THE "LIBERATING EFFECT OF EDUCATION" / 173
1. You have a book, you have a part! / 173
2. School evaluation – a necessary evil / 173
3. Historical landmarks in the evolution of docimological ideas in Romania / 175
4. Attestation of completion of studies. Titles and diplomas / 177
5. Study documents / 178
5.1. Study documents issued today to graduates of the national pre-university education system / 178
5.2. Study documents issued over time – Catalog with images / 179
5.2.1. Certificates and certificates of graduation of four classes / 179
5.2.2. Certificates/attestations/graduation diplomas of seventh / eighth / tenth classes / 185
5.2.3. Baccalaureate diplomas / 188

Chapter II. EVALUATION OF STUDENTS IN THE ROMANIAN SCHOOL. A HISTORICAL PERSPECTIVE / 195
1. Evolutionary milestones regarding the assessment of students in the first half of the 19th century (before 1864 / Cuza's Law) / 195
2. Evaluation of students after the adoption of the Cuza Law. Some general considerations / 197
3. "Law of Instruction" from 1864 regarding the examination of students / 197
4. Solutions to optimize the evaluation in gymnasium and high school; dilemmas and options.. / 198
5. Competition as a school lifestyle / 199
6. Exams - an opportunity to stimulate emulation between students / 200
7. Tradition and modernity: the "pass" exam / 200
8. School results of students and their valorization / 201

Chapter III. STUDENT PROMOTION. PHILOSOPHIES, CONCEPTS, APPROACHES / 203
1. "Student promotion" until the Great Union / 203
2. Laws of Spiru Haret (1898 and 1900): access, promotion, completion of compulsory studies / 206
2.1. Spiru Haret's laws – meritocratic ideas / 206
2.2. The categories of subjects studied then, the equivalent of today's curricular areas / 208
3. The promotion of students between the two world wars / 208
3.1. Law for state primary education from 1924 (Constantin Angelescu Law) / 208
3.2. Law for secondary education from 1928 / 209
4. Promotion of students after the Second World War / 210
4.1. The decree of 1948 – sovietization of the Romanian school / 210
4.2. The laws of 1968 and 1978 – the return to traditional structures / 211
5. Promotion of students today / 212

Chapter IV. STUDENT GRADING/ASSESSMENT SYSTEMS. A HISTORICAL PERSPECTIVE / 213
1. "Grades", "Absences" and "Behavior" - the structural elements of school evaluation / 213
2. The problem of the notary; grading / appreciation scales; diversity in application and use / 214
3. Four marks and four qualifications before Cuza's Law / 214
4. Ten grades and ten qualifications after the application of Cuza's law / 215
5. The "sorocite" and "non-sorocite" exams in the Romanian school / 218
6. Demanding and indulgent in evaluation. Minimum success thresholds / 218
7. The relativity of the evaluation. The danger of superficiality and vitiated results / 219

Chapter V. PREMIERE OF STUDENTS OVER TIME. MEANING, IMPACT / 221
1. Pavel Kiselef's name day - the date of the premiere of Romanian students / 221
2. Admission of students until the entry into force of the Law of Cuza / 221
3. Cuza's Law: Only one is a winner! The best wins! / 222
4. The award ceremony of the students in 1872 / 223
5. Giving up the "coronita" today = flight from competition? / 225
6. The student's well-being - a vulnerable umbrella / 226
7. Baccalaureate - spring overtime; evolutionary milestones / 227
7.1. Baccalaureate – time sequences / 227
7.1.1. Sequence I. The introduction of the Baccalaureate exam in 1866 / 227
7.1.2. Sequence II/Baccalaureate after the Great Union / 229
7.1.2.1. How was BACHELOR'S GRADUATE IN 1925‑1927? / 229
7.1.2.2. "Let me see myself with the bag in my hand" / 230
7.1.3. Sequence III/ Baccalaureate before 1989 / 231
7.1.4. Sequence IV. BAC diploma today: meaning and significance / 232
8. School rewards – meritocratic values ​​/ 233
8.1. Meanings of the reward / 233
8.2. How were school rewards used in the past? / 233
8.2.1. Symbolic rewards and material rewards / 233
8.2.2. Medals for students - images / 234
8.3. School rewards today / 235
8.4. Repetition and correction: Pedagogical remedies for school failure / 235
8.4.1. Repetition / 236
8.4.2. Corrigenta / 236
9. Sanctions and school punishments. Short retrospect / 238
10. Sanctions provided by Cuza's Law / 239
11. Penalties provided by Cuza's Law / 240
12. School sanctions and punishments today / 240
13. Absentees in the school landscape of yesteryear / 241

PART IV. EVALUATION VERSUS MEASUREMENT IN EDUCATION / 244

Chapter I. THE CRISIS OF THE MEANING OF EVALUATION / 244
1. The crisis of the meaning of school evaluation / 244
2. School to the report or Education to the performance test / 246
3. Competence - impact on the innovation of educational systems / 247
4. Legitimacy and relevance of referential in school evaluation / 249
5. Evaluation in education - between official rhetoric, excessive formalization, school practice and the student's personality / 251
6. Low self-esteem of the young generations - the consequence of the message sent by the Ministry: "National disaster in education" / 251
7. The logic of selection and school competition / 253
8. International comparative studies: towards a common referential / 253
9. The characteristic/essence of international comparative assessments: what students can do with what they have learned / 254
10. Definitive notes of international comparative evaluations / 255
11. The assessment transition from "the student should know the book" to "the student should be able to apply" / 256

Chapter II. GENERAL SCIENTIFIC FRAMEWORK OF EVALUATION IN EDUCATION / 257
1. Curriculum and assessment – ​​a solidary approach / 257
2. The systemic approach to school evaluation. The interaction of evaluation with the other components of the education system / 257
3. Reference and evaluation - a complex relationship / 261
3.1. The reference as a normative and operational dimension of the evaluation / 261
3.2. Referential - referentialization: progressive construction on levels / 262
3.3. Implications of the referential on the didactic and curricular approach; change of logic / 263
4. Competence profile - referential in evaluation / 264
5. Educational standards – regulation mechanisms / self-regulation / 265
5.1. The standard – conformity with a model / 265
5.2. Standardization – the process of developing standards / 265
5.3. Standardization of didactic activity between the human dimension and the rigid and rigorous framework of "normativity" / 266
5.4. The standard as referential / 267
5.5. Standard and referential: semantic differences / 268
5.6. Standards in education - expression of desirable acquisitions / 269
5.7. Curricular standards, performance standards, performance descriptors: interdependent / 270
6. Performance standards = evaluation standards / 271
6.1. Conceptual meanings, relationships / 271
6.2. Performance standards – Performance descriptors: dynamics of interdependence relationships / 271
6.3. Standards as mechanisms of self-realization / social self-reproduction / 274
6.4. The standards as metacognitive instances of learning regulation / 274
6.5. Disadvantages and limits of standards and standardization / 275
6.6. Educational standards: domains of expression / 275
6.6.1. Content standards and performance standards. Semantic differences / 275
6.6.2. Content standards / 276
7. Performance standards - student performance levels / 278
7.1. Performance standards - referential in evaluation / 278
7.2. Performance standards formulated in terms of content: specifics, functions / 279
7.3. Performance standards formulated in relative terms: specific, functions / 280
7.4. Interdependencies and interactions / 281
7.5. The standardized testing in Romania did not achieve its goal due to the lack of representativeness of the sample / 282
7.6. Theories applied in the formulation of performance standards / 283
7.6.1. Traditional theory / 283
7.6.2. Theory of full learning or Theory of general effectiveness in learning (criteria pedagogy) / 283
8. Performance levels = compliance levels / 284
9. Performance descriptors / 286
9.1. Construction and analysis / 286
9.2. Characteristics of performance descriptors / 287
9.3. Formulation of performance descriptors: stake and practices / 288
10. Transcription of the state of a competence in a performance system / 288

Chapter III. GENERAL DEONTOLOGICAL FRAMEWORK OF EVALUATION IN EDUCATION / 290
1. "Piloting education systems through testing and percentages = catastrophe! / 290
2. Relativity in educational evaluation. Any assessment is relative! / 291
3. Invitation to reflection: those who want to evaluate everything do not evaluate anything! / 292
4. The transition from the "culture of control" to the "culture of evaluation" in education / 293
5. Modernization of school assessment; trends / 295
6. Redesigning the assessment. Requirements / 295
7. Qualities of a good evaluation system / 296
8. Strategic evaluative approach: design and construction elements / 296
9. Declaration of the rights and duties of the evaluated student / 297
10. Pitfalls of institutional evaluation / 297
11. Deontological principles in the evaluation of the quality of education / 298
12. Evolution of assessment tests: chronology / 299
13. Modern assessment versus standardized assessment. Comparative analysis / 300
14. The perverse effects of standardized digital testing / 301
15. The "backwash" effect and the logic of exams / 303
16. The change of perspective: from estimative evaluation to appreciative evaluation / 303
16.1. Estimated evaluation - evaluation by measurement / 303
16.2. Appreciative evaluation - qualitative evaluation / in the absence of measurement / 304
16.3. Normative judgments - descriptive judgments in evaluation / 305
17. The outdated/obsolete nature of standardized testing / 305
17.1. The "voice" of pedagogy specialists: "there are many ways to be smart." / 305
17.2. The comparative evaluation returns in force. Long live the Gaussian Curve! / 306
17.3. Back to "docimology"! / 308
18. Computerized testing based on digitization / 310
18.1. Quality and ethical values ​​in digital evaluation / 310
18.2. Ethical values ​​in the management of the digital evaluation subsystem / 312

PART V. MERITOCRATIC REQUIREMENTS IN THE TRAINING AND PERFECTION OF TEACHERS. HISTORICAL MARKINGS / 313

Chapter I. MERITOCRACY REFLECTED IN THE TRAINING, SELECTION AND PROMOTION OF TEACHERS / 313
1. Pillars of teacher training and evaluation over time / 313
2. Continuity and change in the training and improvement of teaching staff / 314
3. From the teaching job to the professionalization of the teaching career / 315
4. The architecture of the system of training and improvement of teaching staff / 316
5. Conceptual harmonization with advanced pedagogies from Western Europe in teacher training and evaluation / 317
6. Critical problems, remedies / 320

Chapter II. TRAINING OF TEACHERS AND CAREER DEVELOPMENT. EVOLUTIONARY MARKERS / 321
1. CUZA's Law/ Public Instruction Law (1864) on "teacher training" / 321
2. The law of 1893 – continuation and development of meritocratic ideas in the training and evaluation of teaching staff / 322
2.1. General framework / 322
2.2. Appointment of primary teaching staff / 323
2.3. Final exam / 323
3. Law on secondary and higher education / March 1898 (Spiru Haret's Law) / 323
3.1. General framework / 323
3.2. Pedagogical competence of teaching staff in Spiru Haret's Law / 325
4. Law on primary and normal primary education (1900) / 325
4.1. Definitely + One more step! "On the spot" / 325
4.2. "Examination for promotion on the spot" / 326
4.3. Criticism of the weather / 327
5. The law for state primary education from 1924 / 328
6. Law for secondary education/ 1928 / 330
7. Law for the organization and operation of primary and normal education / 1939 / 331
8. Training and evaluation of teaching staff between 1944 - 1989 / 334
8.1. Period 1944 – 1948 – 1968 / 334
8.2. Education Law (1968) and Law no. 6/1969 regarding the Statute of teaching staff / 334
8.3. THE EDUCATION AND EDUCATION LAW of 1978 and the "Specifications regarding the improvement activity" no. 60472/1979 / 337
9. Training and evaluation of teaching staff after "89" / 341
9.1. General framework / 341
9.2. Training and improvement through diplomas and didactic degrees / 342
9.2.1. Continuing education / 342
9.2.2. Perfection by finalizing education and by awarding didactic degrees II and I / 344
9.2.3. Improvement programs organized once every 5 years (periodic improvement) / 346
9.3. Finalized 2016, 2017, 2022 versus Finalized 2015, 2014 / 347
10. Continuous training of teaching staff through accredited programs / 347

Chapter III. DEFINITIVE IN EDUCATION AND TEACHING DEGREES. A HISTORICAL PERSPECTIVE, SYNTHESIS / 351
1. Definitive and didactic degrees in the Romanian school / 351
1.1. From 1864 (Cuza's Law) to 1944 / 351
1.2. Definitive and didactic degrees in the period 1944‑1989 / 353
1.3. Definitive and didactic degrees after "89" / 355

Chapter IV. SCHOOL CONTROL AND INSPECTION / 356
1. Historical landmarks / 356
2. Teaching duties starting with the school year 1863/1864 / 357
3. School inspection; beginnings, important historical landmarks / 358
3.1. Eminescu ...represents in the history of rural education, before Haret, the highest level of national consciousness" / 358
3.2. The structure of inspection reports in the period 1893‑1948 / 360
3.3. School inspection objectives in the 50s-60s of the last century / 361
4. Mediocrity of teaching staff promoted by national decisions / 361
5. Deficiencies in methodical training. "Methodical movement is almost nil ... and without a rational method the instruction will launch" / 363
5.1. Creanga's alphabet - the first methodical book in the country / 363
5.2. Mihai Eminescu: reforming the method means "living and intuitive learning" versus "the dead mechanism of memorizing things" / 364

Chapter V. THE OATH OF THE TEACHER/PROFESSOR” - CODE OF PEDAGOGICAL DEONTOLOGY / 368
1. The oath taken by the communal teachers until the Law of Cuza / 368
2. The oath of faith and devotion to the King, the Constitution and the Laws of the country (after the arrival of Charles I) / 370
3. "Teacher's Socratic Oath". Commitment and ethos are more important than professional competence / 372

PART VI. CATALOG OF MINISTERS OF EDUCATION (1859 – PRESENT) / 374
1. Ministers of Education from the period 1859‑1947 / 375
2. Ministers of Education from the period 1948‑1989 / 380
3. Ministers of Education from 1989-present / 381

CONCLUSIONS / 382

BIBLIOGRAPHY / 386

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