The present paper aims to contribute to the understanding of the phenomenon of amplification of international trade flows and to the strengthening of the capacity to analyze economic decisions worldwide from the perspective of their effects on participants in the global value circuit.
Starting from the fact that currently the international trade and financial flows represent the most dynamic components of the world economy, the participation of economic agents in these flows presupposes the knowledge of their determinants in order to efficiently capitalize on existing opportunities and identify risks specific to global business. .
The issue is developed in a logical order, starting from the presentation of conceptual, theoretical and methodological aspects specific to international trade and contemporary trade policies, continuing with the presentation of trends in international trade flows, to new trends of regionalization and globalization and institutionalization of contemporary international trade relations. In the economy of the paper can be identified two main directions, namely, on the one hand, the presentation of the main participants in international trade (national economies and economic agents with foreign trade activities) and, on the other hand, the regulation of relations between them (World Trade Organization). Trade and regional economic integration organizations).
The first chapter is intended to be more than a brief presentation of the basic notions specific to international trade. Thus, the presented problem tries to outline some answers to questions such as: what is meant by international trade, who are the participants in contemporary trade, what are the notions associated with it (eg international specialization), what are the theories formulated over time in explaining this phenomenon. Also here are analyzed the means of quantification and registration of trade flows, as well as aspects regarding the measurement of the intensity and efficiency of the activity of the participants in the international trade.
The second chapter focuses on identifying the main trends in the evolution of international trade flows. The dynamics of international trade flows, presented from a statistical point of view, is complemented by explanations regarding the influencing factors and their effects on the well-being of the countries of the world. Also, aspects related to the role of the main players in contemporary international trade relations are considered, namely the Triad countries (USA, EU, Japan) and the BRICS countries (Brazil, Russian Federation, India, People's Republic of China and Republic of South Africa).
Chapters three, four and five deal with issues specific to trade policy issues and their instruments. The issue presented in Chapter Three seeks to clarify notions such as the significance of trade policies, their objectives, the role of transnational corporations in developing trade policy instruments. The central place in this chapter is held by the typology of trade policies, in which case theoretical aspects are presented accompanied by a series of examples on free trade and protectionist trade policies. The following two chapters represent the basic nucleus of the trade policy issue, concentrating the main trade policy instruments, namely: tariff and non-tariff instruments applicable mainly to imports and instruments for promoting and stimulating exports. Throughout these chapters, the theoretical-explanatory issue is doubled by a multitude of boxes with additional explanations and practical examples from the realities of international trade and trade policies of world countries, including Romania.
Chapter six considers aspects of regionalization of trade. The theoretical aspects regarding the issue of the phenomenon of regional integration are doubled by presentations of the main regional economic integration groups, namely: the European Union and the European Free Trade Association, for Europe; North American Free Trade Agreement for North America; MERCOSUR market for Latin America, Asia-Pacific Cooperation Forum, for Asia and others.
The institutionalization of the international trade system is the subject of chapters seven, eight and nine, in which the aspects specific to the activity of the World Trade Organization (WTO) are presented and analyzed. Thus, in chapter seven, after presenting the context of the emergence of the WTO, are considered aspects of the main provisions of the WTO, including: objectives, fundamental principles, aspects of negotiations, the position of developing countries and within the WTO, WTO cooperation with other international organizations. Chapters eight and nine present the results of the first WTO ministerial conferences, including the main results of WTO work.
The entire paper is accompanied by a multitude of boxes with additional explanations and practical examples from the realities of international trade and trade policies of countries around the world, including Romania.