Location and within Asia.
Asia is arguably the continent most extensive, populous and geographically complex. In the roughly 45 million km, meet many of the geographical extremes of the Earth: the highest altitude - Everest, the lowest point of land - Dead Sea pole permanently cold regions humanized - Verhoiansk, heavy pole - Cherrapunji, the largest lake - the Caspian Sea, the deepest lake - Baikal, the largest forest - Siberian taiga, the most populous country - China, the largest metropolitan area - Tokyo, etc..
Asia is very old name, was first used by Greeks, specifically by Herodotus, in 440 BC Asia is more than a geographical, cultural and historical concept than a single continent, separated from Europe are not very clearly expressed. Moreover, Europe is often regarded as a peninsula of Asia, which together form Eurasia. Boundary between these two continents, agreed by most geographers, is a line beginning at the Arctic Ocean and the Ural Mountains continues, Ural River, Caspian Sea, Caucasus, Black Sea, Bosphorus Strait, Marmara Sea, the Dardanelles Strait and Great Aegean.
Africa is limited by time of the Suez Canal, Red Sea, Bab-el-Mandeb Strait and Gulf of Aden. To the south, east and north boundaries of the continent are given Indian oceans, Pacific and Arctic. Bering Strait, with a width of 85 km and a depth of 30-50 m, separating Asia from North America and the Arafura and Timor seas separate it from Australia.
According to generally accepted geographical limits, we find some discrepancies with political borders. In this context, identify several transcontinental countries such as Russia, Kazakhstan, Azerbaijan, Georgia, Turkey, Cyprus, Egypt and Indonesia.In Russia, even though historically, culturally and economically integrated European space is more than 75% of the territory lies east of the Ural Mountains. As regards Kazakhstan, it has two provinces, Western Atirau and Kazakhstan, which extend west of the Ural River. Georgia and Azerbaijan have most of the territory in Asia, but both have small portions to the north line of the greatest heights of the Greater Caucasus. In addition, these two states, together with Armenia, have strong political connections, economic and cultural links with Europe.
Turkey, despite the fact that only 3% of its territory lies in Europe, joined the Council of Europe since 1949 and is the 2005 official candidate for EU membership.Cyprus, an island in geographically is part of Asia, was admitted to the Council of Europe in 1961 and the European Union in 2004.
Sinai Peninsula, part of Egypt is in Asia, east of the Suez Canal. In addition, geopolitical, Egypt Middle East is often employed. Africa has close links Socotra Island, located off the Horn of Africa, but controlled Yemen, as part of the Aden governorate. Indonesia, the common associated Southeast Asia, has a number of areas that have similar characteristics Oceania. It is the eastern provinces of the state, beyond the Wallace Line.
If we consider only the continental area, the extremes of Asia are: Cape Baba (Turkey, 2604 'east longitude), head Dejnev (Ciukotsk Peninsula, Russia, 169040' west), head Celiuskin (Taimâr Peninsula, 77043 'N) , Cape Piai (Malacca Peninsula, 1016 'north). Considering the whole Asian area, including the island, the situation changes. Thus, the southern extremity of Asia is given by Dana Island (Pulau Dana, 1105 'south latitude) in Indonesia, an uninhabited island south of the island of Roti. In addition, if we take Cocos (Keeling) as part of Southeast Asia, the southern boundary would move beyond the parallel of latitude 120.
Likewise, the northern tip of Cape Arctic is given Komsomolets Island (Severnaia Zemlya), located at 81013 'north. Then, in the central Bering Strait are two islands, Big Diomede and Little, located at a distance of about 4 km, among which is the border between Russia and the U.S. and at the same time, the International Date line (imaginary line designating place where each calendar day begins). Thus, Big Diomede Island, known in Russian as the Ratmanova Ostrov, a district Ciukotsk, represents the eastern extremity of Asia (169,005 ').
Regions of Asia.
In the regionalization of Asia, although there are some different views can delineate six major regions, each with many distinct features, in addition to geographical location, such as East Asia, Southeast Asia, South Asia, Asia South-Western, Central Asia and Northern Asia.
East Asia is a region of cultural and historical point of view, was part of the Chinese sphere of influence. States and territories included here are: China, including the special administrative regions Hong Kong and Macao, Japan, North Korea, South Korea, Taiwan and Mongolia. The latter, as some parts of China, which have been historically and culturally dominated by Han Chinese and predominantly arid environment, ie the Tibet Autonomous Region, Xinjiang Uygur and Inner Mongolia and Qinghai Province are associated with the central part of Asia.
East Asia is seen as between India and across the Amur, divided into North-East Asia and Southeast Asia. North-East Asia and sometimes includes land north of Valley Amuri.
South-East Asia geographical region of China and India, consisting of a peninsular (Indochina Peninsula): Thailand, Vietnam, Mayanmar, Laos, Cambodia and Peninsular Malaysia, and an island: Indonesia, Philippines, Eastern Malaysia, Singapore, Brunei and East Timor. Christmas and Cocos Islands (Keeling) south of the Indonesian archipelago, are considered parts of Southeast Asia, even when administered by Australia.
South Asia comprises the area south of the Himalayan mountain system - Hindukush, composed of Member: India, Pakistan, Afghanistan, Bangladesh, Sri Lanka, Nepal, Bhutan and Maldives. Some sources, such as the UN Statistics Division, including in the region and Iran.
South-Western Asia (Western Asia) correspond to the terms of traditional European Middle East and the Middle East, both describing the geographical position of regions in relation to Europe. This includes: Turkey, Cyprus, Armenia, Georgia and Azerbaijan, countries which revolve between Europe and Asia, and Member Levant (Syria, Jordan, Lebanon and Israel), Iraq, Iran and the Arabian Peninsula states (Saudi Arabia, Kuwait , UAE, Oman, Yemen, Qatar and Bahrain).
Central Asia in the modern context, includes the five former Soviet countries: Kazakhstan, Uzbekistan, Turkmenistan, Tajikistan and Kirghizstan. More broadly, this fall and Mongolia, Afghanistan and western China (Tibet Autonomous Region, Xinjiang Uygur and Inner Mongolia and Qinghai province).
North Asia, including Asian part of Russia, east of the Ural Mountains, is a term less used.