Biochemistry for Pharmacists. Hormones in the Regulation of Metabolic Processes

Editura Universitara
45,00 Lei

ISBN: 978-606-28-1252-2

DOI: https://doi.org/10.5682/9786062812522

Publisher year: 2021

Edition: I

Pages: 314

Publisher: Editura Universitara

Author: Denisa Marilena Margina, Daniela Gradinaru, Cristina Manuela Dragoi, Alina Crenguta Nicolae, Anca Ungurianu

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In the history of their knowledge, hormones have gone from the status of mysterious angels and demons of our body, to one of the most debated and explored medical specialties. It is proven that hormones control (almost) everything: growth, metabolism, behavior, sex and reproduction, lactation, sleep-wake cycles, mood swings, stress, pain, immune system, struggle and abandonment ...

What makes them so remarkable - compared to all other biomolecules - is the seemingly magical way they work: they "excite" the receptors of some target cells by pressing the "switches" that trigger them. or stops biochemical processes.

The study of hormones is fascinating because it integrates biochemistry, anatomy, physiology and pathology ... The latest discoveries in cellular and molecular biology, immunology and genetics, currently explain the mechanisms of hormone secretion and action, and the mechanisms of endocrine diseases, so they have an applicability and a major impact in developing vital treatments.
  • Biochemistry for Pharmacists. Hormones in the Regulation of Metabolic Processes

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DENISA MARILENA MARGINA
DANIELA GRADINARU 
CRISTINA MANUELA DRAGOI
ALINA CRENGUTA NICOLAE
ANCA UNGURIANU 

 

For the "Science of Medicine," the importance of studying hormones is found chronologically in the history of the discoveries of these "chemical messengers" - a history of intuition, the wrong paths, perseverance and hope. In 1905 Ernest Starling presented to his confreres at the Royal College of Physicians of London the famous lecture "The Chemical Correlation of the Functions of the Body," in which he first introduced the term "hormone," so called from hormao ( in Greek - to excite or arouse).

In Romania, in 1909, C.I. Parhon and M. Goldstein published Les secretions internes - the first treatise on endocrinonology in the world, and in 1916 N. Paulescu discovered insulin. In the 1920s, the use of insulin as a treatment transformed diabetes from a death sentence into a chronic disease.

In the history of their knowledge, hormones have gone from the status of mysterious angels and demons of our body, to one of the most debated and explored medical specialties. It is proven that hormones control (almost) everything: growth, metabolism, behavior, sex and reproduction, lactation, sleep-wake cycles, mood swings, stress, pain, immune system, struggle and abandonment ...

What makes them so remarkable - compared to all other biomolecules - is the seemingly magical way they work: they "excite" the receptors of some target cells by pressing the "switches" that trigger them. or stops biochemical processes.

The study of hormones is fascinating because it integrates biochemistry, anatomy, physiology and pathology ... The latest discoveries in cellular and molecular biology, immunology and genetics, currently explain the mechanisms of hormone secretion and action, and the mechanisms of endocrine diseases, so they have an applicability and a major impact in developing vital treatments.

Through this Book of Biochemistry - Hormones we try to "demystify" these molecules but without taking them from their amazing power, and to bring in front of our students - future pharmacists, a small part of the science of hormones ... Thus we want to continue the path inspired by the initiators and mentors of our Biochemistry Discipline!

The Authors

 

 

Introduction / 5

Chapter 1. Biologically active molecules with a regulatory role. Hormones / 13
1.1. History / 13
1.2. Communication in biological systems / 15
1.3. Characteristics of hormone secretion. Definition / 17
1.4. The organization of the hormonal system / 18
1.5. Hormone transport in the body / 19
1.6. Metabolism / elimination of hormones / 19
1.7. Hormone classification / 20
1.8. Cell signaling pathways. Generalities / 22
1.8.1. Cell signaling mechanisms / 24
1.8.2. Intracellular receptors / 25
1.8.3. Membrane receptors / 26
1.8.4. Receptors with intrinsic enzymatic activity / 37
1.9. Mechanisms of action of hormones / 38
1.9.1. The mechanism of action of hormones with membrane receptors / 38
1.9.2. The biochemical mechanism of action of hormones with nuclear receptors / 41

Chapter 2. Hypothalamic hormones / 42
2.1. Generalities / 42
2.2. Nomenclature of hormones secreted by the hypothalamus / 43
2.3. Somatoliberin - STH-RH or SRH (GRH) / 47
2.4. Somatostatin (STH-IH) / 47
2.5. Thyroliberin (TSH-RH / TRH) / 48
2.6. Corticoliberin (CRH) / 49
2.7. Gonadoliberin (GnRH - Gonadotropin-releasing hormone) / 50
2.8. Prolactoliberin (PRH) / 50

Chapter 3. Pituitary hormones / 51
3.1. Generalities / 51
3.2. Growth hormone (GH) / 52
3.3. Thyroid stimulating hormone (TSH) / 55
3.4. Adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH) / 56
3.5. Gonadotropins (Luteinizing hormone - LH, Follicle- stimulating hormone - FSH) / 58
3.6. Prolactin (PRL) / 59
3.7. Intermediate pituitary hormones. Melanotropic hormone (melanostimulator), MSH / 59
3.8. Posterior pituitary hormones / 60
3.8.1. Oxytocin / 61
3.8.2. Vasopressin (antidiuretic hormone - ADH) / 61

Chapter 4. Parathyroid hormones / 63
4.1. Parathyroid glands / 63
4.2. Parathyroid hormone (parathyroid hormone - PTH) / 64
4.3. Calcitonin / 67

Chapter 5. Thymus Hormones / 70
5.1. Generalities / 70
5.2. The role of thymic hormones in activating the immune system / 73
5.3. Diseases associated with disorders of thymic secretion / 74

Chapter 6. Pineal hormones (epiphyses) / 77
6.1. History / 77
6.2. Anatomy and structure of the pineal gland / 78
6.3. The structures of pineal hormones / 79
6.4. Melatonin biosynthesis / 80
6.4.1. Regulation of melatonin synthesis. Dynamics of melatonin synthesis / 83
6.5. Melatonin catabolism / 85
6.6. Melatonin receptors / 86
6.7. The physiological role and therapeutic uses of melatonin / 87
6.8. Pineal gland secretion disorders / 94

Chapter 7. Pancreatic hormones / 96
7.1. The pancreas - location and structure / 96
7.2. Insulin / 97
7.2.1. History / 97
7.2.2. Insulin structure / 97
7.2.3. Biosynthesis and insulin secretion. Peptide C / 98
7.2.4. Glucose transporters (GLUT, SGLT) / 99
7.2.5. The mechanism of insulin secretion in beta-pancreatic cells / 100
7.2.6. Factors influencing insulin secretion / 101
7.2.7. The biochemical mechanism of action of insulin. Insulin receptor / 102
7.2.8. Metabolic effects of insulin / 106
7.2.9. Carbohydrate homeostasis. Blood glucose level (glycemia) / 109
7.3. Diabetes mellitus / 109
7.3.1. Risk factors associated with diabetes / 112
7.4. Glucagon / 115
7.4.1. Metabolic factors that influence glucagon secretion. 116
7.4.2. Mechanism of action and metabolic effects / 116
7.4.3. Hepatic metabolism in starvation: the role of glucagon / 120

Chapter 8. Adipose tissue hormones / 121
8.1. Adipose tissue - structure and functions / 121
8.2. Physio-pathological implications of adipocyte hormones / 123
8.3. Adiponectin / 125
8.4. Leptin / 127
8.4.1. Leptin-insulin interrelationship / 128
8.4.2. Biological effects of leptin / 128
8.5. Resistance / 130
8.6. Ometin and other adipocytokines / 132

Chapter 9. Adrenal medullary hormones / 134
9.1. Generalities / 134
9.2. Adrenal glands / 134
9.3. Structures of adrenal medulla / 135
9.4. Sympatho-adrenal neuroendocrine system / 136
9.5. Biosynthesis of norepinephrine and adrenaline / 137
9.5.1. Regulation of biosynthesis and secretion of medullary-adrenal hormones / 139
9.6. Catecholamine catabolism / 140
9.7. Mechanism of action of adrenal medullary hormones in target tissues / 141
9.7.1. Signaling pathways mediated by α adrenergic receptors / 141
9.7.2. Signaling pathways mediated by β adrenergic receptors / 143
9.7.3. The effects of adrenaline and noradrenaline mediated by adrenergic receptors / 143
9.7.4. Β3 adrenergic receptor - therapeutic target in obesity / 145
9.8. Adrenal medullary hormones - metabolic effects / 148
9.8.1. Adrenaline and the effect of biological amplification in the liver cell / 150
9.9. Secretion disorders of the medullary adrenal glands / 151

Chapter 10. Thyroid hormones / 152
10.1. History of thyroid hormone discovery / 152
10.2. Thyroid gland / 152
10.2.1. Anatomical placement and generalities / 153
10.2.2. Histological structure / 153
10.3. Chemical structure of thyroid hormones / 154
10.4. Thyroid hormone biosynthesis / 154
10.5. Blood transport of thyroid hormones / 157
10.6. Regulation of thyroid hormone biosynthesis / 158
10.7. Thyroid hormone catabolism / 160
10.8. The biochemical mechanism of action of thyroid hormones / 161
10.9. Effects of thyroid hormones at the cellular and metabolic level / 163
10.10. Metabolic interrelationships of thyroid hormones with vitamins and other hormones / 164
10.11. Thyroid secretion disorders / 165

Chapter 11. Adrenal cortical hormones / 170
11.1. History / 170
11.2. Adrenal glands - histological structure and secretory function 171 11.3. / Steroidogenesis / 172
11.4. Glucocorticoid hormones / 174
11.4.1. Cortisol biosynthesis / 174
11.4.2. Regulation of cortisol synthesis and secretion / 176
11.4.3. Biological effects of cortisol / 178
11.4.4. The mechanism of action of cortisol / 180
11.4.5. The role of adrenal hormones (catecholamines and cortisol) in modulating the stress response / 182
11.5. Adrenal secretory disorders / 183
11.6. Mineralcorticoid hormones / 187
11.6.1. Aldosterone biosynthesis / 187
11.6.2. The biological effects of aldosterone / 188
11.6.3. Factors involved in the control of aldosterone secretion / 188

Chapter 12. Female sex hormones / 192
12.1. The history of the discovery of female sex hormones / 192
12.2. Organs and tissues secreting female sex hormones / 192
12.3. The structures of estrogen and progestin hormones / 194
12.4. Biosynthesis of female sex hormones / 194
12.5. Secretion and blood transport of ovarian hormones / 196
12.6. Catabolism of female sex hormones / 197
12.7. The mechanism of action of female sex hormones at the cellular level / 197
12.8. General effects of estrogen on the body / 198
12.8.1. Effects / estrogens on target tissues. Metabolic effects / 199
12.8.2. The general effects of progestogen hormones on target tissues. Metabolic effects / 200
12.9. Regulation of biosynthesis and secretion of female sex hormones / 201
12.10. The activity of the female reproductive system. The estrous cycle / 202
12.10.1. Hormonal dynamics in the estrous cycle / 203
12.11. Therapeutic use of female sex hormones / 205
12.11.1. Hormonal contraceptives / 205
12.11.2. Postmenopausal replacement therapy / 207

Chapter 13. Male sex hormones / 208
13.1. History of the discovery of male sex hormones / 208
13.2. Androgen secreting organs and tissues / 208
13.3. The structure of androgen hormones / 209
13.4. Biosynthesis of male sex hormones / 210
13.5. Biosynthesis of the active form of testosterone / 211
13.6. Testosterone secretion and blood transport / 213
13.7. Testosterone catabolism / 213
13.8. Regulation of testosterone biosynthesis and secretion / 214
13.9. Mechanism of action of testosterone in target tissues / 216
13.10. Physiological and metabolic effects of testosterone in target tissues / 217
13.11. Anabolic steroids / 217

Chapter 14. Local hormones / 220
14.1. Generalities / 220
14.2. Hypothalamic tissue hormones / 221
14.2.1. Cerebral peptides (opioid peptides) / 221
14.2.2. Endocannabinoids / 225
14.2.3. Orexinele / 227
14.3. Digestive tract hormones / 229
14.3.1. Gastrina / 229
14.3.2. Grelina / 230
14.3.3. Pancreatic peptides / 233
14.3.4. Incretinele / 235
14.4. Plasma hormones - their role in modulating blood pressure (vascular tone) / 238
14.4.1. Renin - angiotensin system / 239
14.4.2. Endothelin system / 244
14.4.3. The kinetic system / 246
14.5. Myocardial hormones. Natriuretic atrial peptides / 249
14.6. Renal tissue hormones. Erythropoietin / 254
14.6.1. History of the discovery of erythropoietin / 254
14.6.2. Chemical structure of erythropoietin / 255
14.6.3. Tissue erythropoietin expression / 255
14.6.4. Biosynthesis and metabolism of erythropoietin / 256
14.6.5. Regulation of erythropoietin biosynthesis / 256
14.6.6. Erythropoietin receptor / 259
14.6.7. Biochemical effects of erythropoietin / 261
14.6.8. Manifestations / pathologies associated with disturbances in erythropoietin biosynthesis / 264
14.6.9. Use of erythropoietin in therapy / 265
14.6.10. Use of erythropoietin in sports doping / 266
14.7. Eicosanoids / 267
14.7.1. Generalities. Classification / 267
14.7.2. Prostaglandins / 268
14.7.3. Prostacyclines and thromboxanes / 275
14.7.4. Leukotrienes / 277
14.7.5. Lipoxylins / 281
14.8. Platelet aggregation factor / 281
14.9. Metabolic products of polyunsaturated fatty acids in the structure of cell membranes / 282
14.10. Placental hormones / 286

Chapter 15. Hormones and the aging process / 287
15.1. Clinical and biochemical aspects of the aging of the hormonal system / 287
15.2. Theories of the aging of the hormonal system / 290
15.3. The hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis in aging / 294
15.4. Axis hypothalamus-pituitary-gonads in aging. Dehydroepiandrosterone replacement therapy (DHEA) / 295
15.5. Axis hypothalamus-pituitary-somatomedin in aging. Growth hormone (GH) replacement therapy / 299
15.6. Axis hypothalamus-pituitary-thyroid gland in aging / 303

Bibliography / 305










 

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