The book "Water resources and environmental conditions in the Negev Desert. Israel "has been publicly supported the thesis of Mr. Nathan Cohen in December 2001 at the Institute of Geography of the Romanian Academy, obtaining his Ph.D. in geography with" very good ".
Development work on this theme resulted from discussions with Mr. Nathan Cohen in 1993 during a visit to study the program of cooperation between the Romanian Academy and the Academy of Sciences in Israel on "Water resources and geographical areas of risk." This exchange interacademic, which was attended by Prof. Dr. Adrian Cioaca from the Institute of Geography of the Romanian Academy was occasioned by a cooperation agreement between Romania and Israel, which has trained and renowned specialists in Israel (Prof. Dan Bowman of the University "Ben Gurion" in Beer Sheva and Prof. Zwi Institute Offers "James Blaunstein" Desert Research at Sde Boqer a) and Romania (Prof. Dr. Dan Bălteanu of the Institute of Geography).
On this occasion, was visited several geographical units in Israel including the Negev Desert revealed water resource problems, particularly poor and management to meet socio-economic. Noting the interest of Mr. Nathan Cohen for the state of the environment in relation to potential water resources and the fact that active and continues to work, and now, in the city Beer Sheva, located in the northern Negev desert, it was agreed to follow the passes / steps outlined, with exams and papers and drafting paper.
Work in an extension of 230 pages apart from the text itself contains 62 drawings of maps, photos, profiles, 12 color photographs, a list with 78 titles and bibliographical has 6 chapters.
In this chapter beginning on the geographical location issues are addressed in the context of neighbors Egypt Negev desert in southern Jordan in the east, Gaza, the West, as part of the geographical unit considered. There have also been addressed and historical aspects, especially after the conquest of independence and the demographic, population growth through the expatriation of Eastern Europe and Africa and the need for water resources, an important component of life and economic development.
Chapter - Environmental factors in the Negev desert comprises components that define the state of the environment and resources specific geological structure with basement, specific relief, arid climatic conditions that determine the vegetation and fauna.
In terms of the geographical unit by ancient geological, paleogeographic evolution, lithology special characteristics with eruptive rocks, metamorphic, but, especially, the compact settlement covering 90% of the desert that are not favorable accumulation and scarce water resources from rainfall . These formations are suitable to obtain building materials and cement industry (limestone) and rocks of precipitation for phosphorus, potassium, bromine, gypsum is used in the chemical industry.
Relief determined by geological structure Negev plateau, arid climatic conditions is of type Hammad, injured except the north-west to the Mediterranean coast and the eastern Arava valley. The latter is a continuation of the East African graben, which in the northern terminal houses the two lakes - the Dead Sea and Sea of Galilee (Kinneret). Platform structural relief was much deformed over time, resulting in bulging (anteclize) with massive dorsal ridges and dipping (sineclize) with pools and passageways depression. As specific relief developed on limestone rock canyons stands (Nahalal) and buttonholes anticline rounded, the latter giving a very specific aspect Negev, called local Makhteshim. Occupied by the Dead Sea graben edge and Arava valley, are characteristic of slide structures were redressed by the vertical (height Sedom) gipsifere parties and, especially, Lisan deposits, which are formed Badlands's true.
Climate, geographical position determined between the Mediterranean and graben, called here, West Asia, with dams in the mountainous east, and north latitude (30-32 °), near the southern desert of the Sinai peninsula, hot and arid climate causes but with many special events - producing torrential rains flood the dry valleys of gravel transport and short bolovănişuri, dust storms, which complicates the development of vegetation and human living conditions, etc.. Radiative component rather high (675 cal / cm ² / day in the north and 725 cal / cm ² / day in the south in June), summer high temperatures (31-32 º and 38 averages in the mountains and the valley Arava), low humidity (20 50% in summer), high average wind values (5-6 m / s), precipitation in small quantities (in North 300mm/an Beer Sheva and 30 mm / year in the south to Eilat, geomorphological processes determine decomposition characterized by (meteorizaţie physical) and chemical alteration.
Hydrography Negev, namely network of dry valleys in most of the year can be considered as a network made at other times when the climate was wet.
Regarding the impact of human activities in the Negev Desert, the author brings relevant personal data occurred in recent decades by emissions from the chemical industry, solid and liquid waste from the same companies, metal waste and those resulting from tourism activity affecting the characteristic landscape. Is raised in this respect, the "Israel 2020" the author draws the attention of the reduced capacity of absorption ability of the environment of this waste.
Particular attention is given to author and use their water resources in poor conditions and need to supply the local potential and existing urban rural settlements. Given the episodic rainfall and drainage basin network, the valleys, the author adopts an appropriate method of management of water resources, analyzing the relationship between rainfall, the bedspread lithologic deposits on slopes and river valleys to show their accumulation and transfer, by springs, water from underground. These groundwater resources are better shape depressions in porous formations and valleys on the slopes with small inclination. In this respect it is estimated that only 38% of the Negev has water storage capacity. A good example is the city of Beer Sheva in translation means, seven wells, the largest in the region analyzed and ancient underground water supply is by wells.
Withholding water for episodic floods in small reservoirs is prevalent in the northern valleys where there are fine alluvial loess deposits or material which are called the Beer Sheva district through. These are points in the landscape with trees - eucalyptus - the dam of land not exceeding 4-5 m height. This traditional process is amplified at this stage in the Gaza region, by building more resilient.
Another way to use ground water, salt, is bringing it to the surface by drilling and development of mesothermal salt ponds for fish. In the Dead Sea and Gulf of Aqaba, in the Arava valley, small ponds were built to retain water from precipitation.
Also, the author briefly to cover the needs of water and seawater desalination is practiced but with high costs Ashdot - Mediterranean Sea and Eilat - Aqaba Gulf, Red Sea.
Although these actions of modest quantities of water retention of precipitation does not cover the needs / requirements of water in the Negev Desert. Satisfaction in the entire region is provided by the National Canal water basin in the north where the largest is Lake Kinneret freshwater known in antiquity by the Sea of Galilee, which the Romans called it Sea of Galilee.
Negev Desert in Israel is 65% but with a population just over 1.5 million people, concentrated in urban (Beer Sheva, Arad, Eilat, Asquelon, Dimona, etc..) Due to less favorable geographical conditions.
Due to this geographic area lithology, 60% of the area affected by the quarry for the extraction of construction materials and raw materials for chemical industry, for tourist facilities, roads and 40% protected areas. The paper presents the natural reserves management categories (permanent reserves, seasonal) based on protected targets.
At the end of the paper, the author presents some very important issues in perspective and use the Negev desert environment such as reduced capacity of water resources in the context of continuous development, but sustainable protection of vegetation and fauna not only in protected areas, implementing appropriate measures to protect the fragile environment in relation to industrial activities and to the tourist.
This paper is published in Romanian in the first place, an important source of information for secondary education, secondary and university education from an expert, to date, places less accessible to the public in Romania.
Prof. dr. lecturer Dr Petre Gâştescu