Globalization, Governance and the Environment in the Next Decade

Editura Universitara
28,00 Lei 20,44 Lei

ISBN: 978-606-28-1054-2


Publisher year: 2020

Edition: I

Pages: 176

Publisher: Editura Universitară

Author: Florina Bran, Carmen Valentina Radulescu, Sorin Burlacu, Dumitru Alexandru Bodislav

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Survival in the house of life is determined not only by natural factors, but also by anthropogenic ones, by people. Man, let nature live ..., through it you will live too! Dimension your mind, your soul first of all, through the policy you pursue, for the conservation of biodiversity, of natural resources, but also of those created by you, not only today, but also tomorrow ...

The Authors
  • Globalization, Governance and the Environment in the Next Decade


FLORINA BRAN - Coordinator



1.1 Earth - the systemic complexity of life / 16
1.2 Environmental functionality - ecological systems / 20

2.1 The historical dimension of globalization / 28
2.2 Evolutions in the conceptualization of globalization / 37
2.3 The dimensions of globalization / 39
2.4 Globalization - pros and cons / 41

3.1 Increasing pressure on natural systems / 55
3.1.1 The driving forces of change / 56
3.1.2 Demographic processes / 57
3.1.3 Economic growth / 62

4.1 Perspectives on the relationship globalization - environment / 65
4.2 International trade and the environment / 68
4.2.1 The effects of environmental regulations on trade / 68
4.2.2 The ecological effects of trade liberalization / 71
4.3 Foreign direct investment and the environment / 81
4.4 Environmental risks in the context of globalization / 86
4.5 Environmental behavior of multinational companies / 99

5.1 The global economy or the catching-up process / 108
5.2 Globalization and current macroeconomic influences / 112
5.3 Creating a link between social welfare - profit and state - corporation / 121
5.3.1 The direct relationship between exports - jobs / 121
5.3.2 Investments and trade balance / 123
5.3.3 Business versus Economics / 124
5.3.4 Innovative enterprise and corporate governance / 125
5.3.5 The financial component of corporate governance / 127
5.3.6 Internationalization and change of state governance schemes / 129
5.4 Selection models in public-private partnerships / 130
5.5 Nations and organizations - Synergy or singularism? / 138
5.5.1 Corporate governance and multicultural pressure / 140

6.1 Explanation of concepts: information society / digital society, e-democracy, e-participation, open data / 146
6.2 Public services and electronic public services (e-Services) / 149
6.3 Features of electronic public services: principles, beneficiaries / participants, classifications / 152



Globalization is an increasingly used term, with different perceptions and meanings, this being the key word in the contemporary economy.
Globalization is a term used to identify a new global phenomenon, the fusion of consumer markets, factors of production, labor, technology, capital and also natural capital.
The effects of globalization, and especially those caused by the actions of the World Trade Organization, have led to strong resistance to the process by people and non-governmental organizations around the world. These grievances became apparent in Seattle in 1999, when more than 50,000 protesters disagreed with globalization and tried to draw attention to the effects of the process.
One of the principles proposed by the World Trade Organization is trade liberalization, in the sense that states must reduce trade barriers, such as customs duties and allow trade to flow, but the extent to which these barriers will be reduced is a matter for governments. negotiate between them.
Industrialized countries are large consumers of minerals, accounting for over 90% of bauxite imports, 100% of nickel imports, over 80% of zinc imports and about 70% of copper, iron, manganese and lead. Developing countries are the source of much of the world's mineral production and bear the associated ecological problems.
For other capitalists, the new profitable activities included placing more money in financial investments and less in industrial ones. The obvious reason was to get higher profits in a shorter time and, in addition, they did not have to worry about rising prices for oil, coal, steel, etc.
Financial capital does not produce anything useful and, practically, it comes down to the movement of money in the world economy, speculating on fluctuations in exchange rates, land prices and interest rates. Rather than building or producing something, financial capital means making a profit from selling and buying goods - including money - and making a bigger profit in a shorter period of time.
The process of globalization is characterized by weakening state control in a number of sectors of economic and social life: finance, information technology, transportation of goods, environmental services and population movements. Second, the levers of globalization have led to the fragmentation of states and societies, increased violence and civil strife, the marginalization of entire groups in special societies and even some states in the global economy.
Globalization can also be beneficial, if we look at the power that modern communication and information technologies offer, to computer networks; so anyone with access to a computer can easily access libraries, databases, breaking news. There is no single source for this information and there is virtually no way to control this phenomenon. If information and knowledge, in general, represent power, then access to power is more equitable to a greater number of people than ever before in human history.
As we enter the new millennium, the world economy and the natural world are in precarious situations, both generating fear of an era of global instability on the horizon. The world economy exploded at the edge of the planet during the 20th century. Now is the time to build the international governance structures needed to ensure that the world economy of the 21st century meets people's aspirations for a better future without destroying the natural fabric that underlies life itself.
The anti-democratic force is the ability of global financial markets to limit a government's options. Social-democratic policy is seen as an unfavorable policy for the investment climate. The effects that the global financial market can have on the interest rate can lead to a worsening of a country's economic situation. Thus the apostles of the new global economy praise the ability of capital to penalize certain "inappropriate" policies.
The development of technology in the last two decades, especially in the field of computers, has meant that information, communications and transportation have become much faster and involve more countries around the globe. This new technology has been used by corporations to increase their investments and activities across the borders of the states in which they are located and, of course, to increase their profits. Because of this, some have defined globalization as an "electronic capitalism." But, of course, the phenomenon itself represents much more. In the last fifty years, the investments of corporations in Europe, North America and Southeast Asia have increased significantly compared to the previous period. In fact, these investments have been made largely by companies in the United Kingdom, France, Germany, the United States, Canada and Japan. These corporations have become stronger and played a larger role in the global economy, while their products have come to dominate markets around the world. These companies, known as transnational or multinational companies, have grown and grown substantially in recent times.
The main "international civil servants" for this phenomenon are considered to be the World Bank and the International Monetary Fund, as well as financial institutions and the World Trade Organization.
The World Bank is the largest source of financing for development, providing more than $ 16 billion annually to client states. The Bank uses its financial resources, skilled personnel and knowledge to help developing countries achieve healthy, stable and lasting growth, contributing to the Bank's fight against poverty on the planet.
With the increase of interdependencies between the states of the world, a greater competitiveness will be affirmed, by the simple fact that there will be more participants in the game, as required by the theory of the market system. But if we consider the historical consideration, according to which there were large discrepancies between the levels of development of countries and their economic power, it can be objected that the "new" process of globalization is a new form of colonialism, because at present there are only a few states that, in the past, benefited from the contribution of the colonies and it can be said that they have a mentality already formed, and now they are the most developed countries. From within these countries come most transnational corporations that can sell their products worldwide, thus further increasing their profits.
In the current phase of globalization, the role of governments is to ensure that their own economy does not become enslaved. The emphasis is on the competitiveness of national companies, on foreign markets and this not only in case of export and even on domestic markets, where cheaper and better quality imported products enter. The insecurity of the capital markets and at the same time the close connection that exists between them globally is another challenge to be solved for the artisans of globalization. The resources that the planet offers are constantly declining, and humanity is developing both in number and in need. A global consumer society is desired by everyone, but there is an end to the irrational exploitation of resources.
Food research, and in particular genetically modified organisms (GMOs), are dangerous technologies that have not been shown to be compatible with the environment and existing diversity, but which are used for commercial purposes. Global use of pesticides and other substances
"Hardly digestible" environmental leads only to a short-term result, with negative effects in the not-so-distant future as I thought.
The European Union and the United States are currently facing special trade problems, such as: the EU banning the sale of beef produced with growth hormones. However, this law falls under the agreements of the World Trade Organization, where it is considered the non-tariff barrier to free trade. Inspired by public concern about the effects of genetically modified organisms on health and the environment, EU legislation calls for proper labeling of all foods containing genetically modified soy or maize. Other countries, such as Australia, Brazil, Japan and South Korea, are doing the same today. A wide range of foods made by American companies - including bread, salad oils and ice cream - contain genetically modified organisms. Instead, many European manufacturers do not use GMOs. US companies complain that labeling requirements are trade barriers, and the US and Canadian governments support the same view at the level of the World Trade Organization and other international fora. As I mentioned before, there is a certain regionalization of economic areas. It is probably a stage in the process of globalization.
Another type of globalization is the result of human actions and natural disasters that threaten the survival of existing species and even the basis for the future development of humanity. There is a global problem of environmental degradation, deforestation, air and ocean pollution, the spread of epidemics and the political and social dangers posed by unforeseen population movements around the world. Such problems cannot fall to a single state. They cannot be solved by a single state. These global problems of humanity require the attention and effort of all humanity in order to solve them, the development of norms, standards such as global agreements on pollution control measures and other agreements involving the states of the world.
Globalization has become a common word, but it has very different meanings for everyone. For some, it is synonymous with the growth of international corporations, whose extensive operations transcend national borders and interests. For others, the term is closely linked to the computer revolution, the mobility of money, ideas and jobs that computers and other new technologies have been able to offer. Globalization means a complex process of transforming the structure of society in which many intertwined forces make national borders more permeable than before, in increasing trade in investment, travel and computer networks.
Environmental protection associations and non-governmental organizations play an increasing role. Among the many achievements of the latter, educating millions of people on environmental issues and the efficient use of the power of informed citizens, leads to breaking the wave of secrecy that too often covers international negotiations and corporate decision-making. The recent successes of these organizations include exposing the environmental shortcomings of a Multilateral Investment Agreement and blocking it as well as slowing the introduction of genetically modified organisms around the world, until their effects on human health and the environment are better understood.
Fifty years ago, photographs of the Earth, taken from space by Apollo expeditions, produced an indelible impression on all those who observed that although it is divided by political boundaries, our planet is united by ecological systems.
The time has come to launch a real avalanche of support for the international reforms needed to protect the health of the planet in the new millennium and in this way to ensure our existence as a civilization, if not as a cultural mosaic.
In the current phase of globalization, the government's role is to ensure that its own economy does not become enslaved. Emphasis must be placed on the competitiveness of national companies, especially on domestic and foreign markets. The insecurity of the capital markets and at the same time the close connection that exists between them globally is another challenge that must be solved by the artisans of globalization. Good governance must take into account, first of all, the protection of the environment, the massive deforestation of forests, the pollution of air, water, the appearance of epidemics but also of the political and social dangers raised by unforeseen population movements around the world. We are witnessing a series of negatively inserted facts where globalization as a phenomenon decreases, the role of the family in children's education and in the structure of education
Separation of adults from children, grandchildren, due to labor mobility, reduction of natural growth, the presence of a negative surplus leads to a decrease in the number of inhabitants. The negative effects of some international institutions (IMF, World Bank), the pressure of large transnational corporations on some governments are a series of issues that determine us not only to solve problems but also to get involved in appointing decision makers capable of managing affairs. nation and act at the same time in the field of social negentropy.

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