Editura Universitara Geomorphology

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43,00 Lei 31,39 Lei

ISBN: 978-973-749-841-0

Publisher year: 2010

Edition: IV

Pages: 344

Publisher: Universitară

Author: Mihai Ielenicz

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Through the work and the level of treatment, it supports the training of geography students, geologists, naturalists, but also teachers and specialists who want to know the relief in the context of their concerns. In particular, it is recommended for geography students from ZI, IFR and I.D. education forms, geology students, agronomists and construction students, geography teachers and all lovers of relief.
MIHAI IELENICZ
Prof. PhD, a graduate of Geology-Geography in 1964 where he continued going through all the academic hierarchy. PhD in Geography in 1978 with his "Mountains of Buzau basin - geomorphology study", published in the Academy in 1984.
He won an Academy Award in 1975 for his "relief Romania" and in 1985 for his "Encyclopedia of Romania" and the title of Doctor Honoris Causa of the University Stefan cel Mare - Suceava, he was awarded over 25 honorary degrees, excellent and medals of different educational and scientific institutions home and abroad. Dean and Dean of the Faculty of Geography from 1992 to present, Director of Resort Geographic Orsova, Co-director of "research center and dynamic geomorphological land degradation"
Member of Faculty Council and University Senate since 1992, Chairman of National Committee for the undergraduate education programs (since 1996), member CNATDC, CNEAA, expert CNCSIS, improvements in the country and abroad (UK, Belgium, Turkey), President of the Olympics School of Geography (1996), President of the Society of Geography (2003), Vice President of National Committee of Geography (2000), Vice President of the Association of Geomorphology (2002), PhD (1993), a member of teams The editor of numerous magazines, etc.. He wrote alone and over 210 scientific papers together, participated in 62 research contracts (18 as director), 38 scientific books: "General Geomorphology" 1976, 2002, "Romanian Relief" 1975, "the hills and plateaus of Romania "1999," Physical and Geographical Dictionary "1999," General Geography "2001," Geography and Tourism Romania "2001," Europe Geographical Encyclopedia "2002," Romania Subcarpatii "2003," Romania - Physical Geography "2004," General Physical Geography . Fundamentals of physical geography "2005" Subcarpatii Romania "2005," Geomorphology "2007, 2010," Romania. Physical Geography. Climate, water, vegetation, soils, "2007," Romania. Plateaus and hills "2008," Dictionary of geomorphology "2009," General Physical Geography elements of cosmology "2009," Romania - tourism potential "2009, and numerous popular books, maps etc.

PART I
GLOBAL THEORETICAL GEOMORPHOLOGY


Geomorphology - geographical science / 5
1. Definition and object of study / 5
2. The relief - system of the geographical environment / 12
3. The divisions of Geomorphology and the main directions in the study of relief / 15
4. The connections of Geomorphology with other sciences and its place in Geography / 18
5. The necessary steps to study the relief of a region / 22
6. Principles and methods used in Geomorphology / 23
7. Types of energy of importance for relief / 31
8. Morphogenetic agents and processes / 34
9. General and specific laws of the reliefosphere / 37

PART II
GENETIC GEOMORPHOLOGY


GLOBAL STRUCTURAL TECTON GEOMORPHOLOGY / 45
EARTH AND RELIEFOSPHERE / 45
1. Earth - reporting in time and space / 45
2. Reliefosphere. Limits and main components / 47
SCULPTURAL GEOMORPHOLOGY (EROZIVE-ACCUMULATIVE) / 58
1. Weathering and the action of living things / 59
1. Weathering / 59
2. The action of living things in the genesis of relief / 65
3. Deposits and resulting relief forms / 66
4. The micro-relief resulting from weathering and the action of living things / 71
2. Gravity, processes and forms of relief related to it / 74
1. Sudden gravitational process / 75
2. Slow gravitational process / 91
3. Rain stripping and created relief / 98
1. Definition and conditions that favor the action / 98
2. Types of production and results / 101
4. The action of permanent running waters and the resulting relief / 113
1. The morphogenetic mechanism / 113
2. River processes / 115
3. The relief forms created by erosion / 120
4. The relief forms created by accumulation / 148
5. Glaciers and created relief / 155
1. Morphogenetic characteristics / 155
2. Genesis and dynamics of land glaciers / 157
3. Types of glaciers / 158
4. Glaciers in the geological history of the Earth / 162
5. Processes and forms of glacial relief / 165
6. Cryonivation and the results of the manifestation / 176
1. Crionivation - morphogenetic system in regions with cold climate / 176
2. Agents, processes, structures and forms of relief / 177
7. Water of the seas and oceans and the coastal relief / 191
1. Coastal domain / 191
2. Forms of dynamic manifestation of sea water and morphodynamic processes / 193
3. Relief forms created by water dynamics / 198
4. Types of shore / 205
5. The evolution of the shoreline and the coast / 214
8. The wind and the relief created by his actions / 216
1. Wind azonal morphogenetic agent / 216
2. Wind processes and landforms (corrosion, deflation and accumulation) / 217
3. Relationships between wind and other agents / 222
9. Man morphogenetic agent; anthropic relief / 223
10. Rocks and specific relief / 227
1. Morpholithology - general characteristics / 227
2. Representative types of petrographic relief / 228
11. Geological structures and specific reliefs / 249
1. Geological structures and their morphogenetic role / 249
2. The relief developed on sedimentary structures / 250
3. The relief developed on magmatic and eruptive structures / 262
4. Relief developed on complex structures / 277

PART III
CLIMATE GEOMORPHOLOGY


1. Climatic geomorphology - general characteristics / 282
2. Morphoclimatic zones / 285
3. Morphoclimatic floors / 316

PART IV
GEOMORPHOLOGICAL REGIONATION AND TYPING


1. Region / 319
2. Typing / 321

PART V
GENERAL EVOLUTION OF THE RELIEF


1. The theory of global tectonics / 323
2. Geosynclinal theory / 326
3. Theories regarding the evolution of land regions / 327

Bibliography / 336

Writing a geomorphology course seems easy for those who do not know the complexity of the problems that the relief raises. The weight of drawing up such works lies for several reasons. First of all, the problems on a global, regional, local scale that the reliefosphere raises. It has been acquired in over four billion years through a series of transformations imposed by the interaction of factors acting from inside or outside the earth's surface so that its appearance has had and will have a continuous evolution. As a result, the fact that radical and large-scale changes occur in stages, long-lasting phases, they remain more difficult to intuit while the local ones that impose themselves on our eyes, especially when followed by transformations unfavorable to human life, develop interest and concentration in research and inventory. Hence the differences that appear between the geomorphology works of the first part of the century. XX focused on singular analyzes from which it was passed to generalizations and hypotheses regarding both the particular from a geomorphological system, but also its ensemble and the orientations more and more accentuated in the last decades that include detailed quantitative analyzes regarding processes, forms and consequences on the environment. and whose results quantified over periods of several years are included in programs with forecasting possibilities.
So we went from a relatively theoretical Geomorphology based on descriptions, maps and intuition to a practical one with a mathematical load, but limited to local and regional systems.
The huge volume of geomorphological information acquired for over a century naturally led to the multiplication of the problems addressed, which allowed the development of directions that gradually became scientific sub-branches with theoretical or regional application implications. Their imposition implicitly favored the identification of the relations with sciences close to the field of Geography, Geology but also of those in the physical-mathematical field. However, a good knowledge of the geomorphological reality requires imperative field research on as many different situations as possible. The theory gives you the general lines of any standard system and examples, but the understanding of its complexity can only be achieved by confronting the harsh reality of the terrain. Through this you get not only an application of ideas to concrete situations but also a good check of your ability to understand the complexity of processes and the system of correlations between the set of favorable or restrictive factors.
Here are some reasons why writing a geomorphology course is not similar to an article or report on a topic.
The course implies other requirements besides a careful documentation and a long research activity. It is necessary, among others, the didactic experience that allows the structuring and selection of the informative material depending on the level of request of the training.
A course should not be confused with a treaty. If the first insists on the basic ideas and the main directions of Geomorphology in the other (besides the fact that the analyzes will be extensive) the emphasis is on the top elements (genetic, evolutionary, applied, etc.). So, the first is a synthesis, with a guide character, for essential problems pursued by one's own conception and which is addressed to a certain segment of university training. The other will have to be at the same time synthetic, deep and very documented through a multitude of situations, he addressing especially the specialists in the field.
I wanted this paper for other reasons, perhaps subjective. We wanted, first of all, for her to arouse the pride of some famous geographers (former teachers and colleagues) who we consider to have a moral duty to the young generation and not only to translate into writing at least part of what they have accumulated a lifetime. . Secondly, I wanted it to be a replica for those who venture to take courses "on tape" by doing "writing from writing" and which lack both conceptual and methodological ideas, but also the field.
Here are some of the things that determined me to do this course, which for purely economic reasons I had to summarize at the compendium stage. It is based on over 40 years of geomorphological research and documentation, a fruitful collaboration with fellow geomorphologists in the faculty, but also the results of some masters in the study of relief in the country and abroad.
We structured it in parts, but with an emphasis on genetic geomorphology because knowledge of problems and systems related to agents, processes, forms is essential in preparing students in the first years of study. We left for another paper, which we want at treaty level, to address issues of Geomorphometry, Environmental Geomorphology, Dynamic Applied Geomorphology Geomorphology of Romania, etc. Here I only sketched a minimum of practical applications.
By what includes the paper and through the level of treatment we consider that it supports the training of geography students, geologists, naturalists, but also of teachers and specialists who want to know the relief in the context of their concerns. In particular, we recommend it to geography students from ZI, IFR and I.D. forms of education, to geology students, agronomists and construction students, geography teachers and all lovers of relief.

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