Editura Universitara Management methodologies

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Publisher: Universitară

Author: Ovidiu Nicolescu, Ion Verboncu

ISBN: 978-973-749-481-8

Publisher year: 2008

Edition: I

Pages: 384

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In the managerial literature in Romania, this volume is a significant presence from several points of view.
a) The paper has a pronounced methodological character, being one of the few works focused exclusively on the methodological side of the organization's management. Over 90% of its content is represented by managerial methodologies, methods, techniques, procedures, principles, rules and methodological management requirements. In other words, the paper includes what is of priority interest to those who want to practice a professional management, generating economic performance.
b) The volume is built entirely in a systemic vision. It is probably one of the few elaborate management of such proportions that treats the management of the organization exclusively in a systemic vision. The first chapter incorporates methodologies for designing or redesigning the management system of the organization, made in a holistic perspective. Next, in the same perspective, successive design methodologies for the major managerial components are presented, strategy, methodological-managerial subsystem, decisional subsystem, informational subsystem, organizational structural subsystem, human resources management subsystem ending with a chapter dedicated to the effectiveness and efficiency of management. managerial and organizational.
c) The paper has as prevalent dimension the applicability or the organizational pragmatism. There are three elements that give it this essential characteristic: the managerial methodologies presented in each chapter, conceived in an operational vision, from the point of view of the manager and the specialist called to implement them; applied methods and techniques structured, not a few accompanied by model applications for their use; the numerous case studies that incorporate representative managerial studies for the most important elements treated in the paper. When printing the applicative dimension, a major contribution has a long and intensive experience of management consultants of the two authors. The fact that, currently, they offer management consultations to companies being among the few Romanian specialists who redesign company management systems is reflected in the way they perceive and treat managerial problems pronounced pragmatically, from the point of view specific to company management.
d) The approach of the managerial elements is carried out through the prism of the current needs and requirements of the commercial companies that make up the Romanian economy. Unlike almost all the management papers published by local specialists who deal with the problems of Romanian companies, ignoring their cultural and economic specificity and Romania's integration into the European Union, this volume starts and constantly considers these realities with a decisive impact on the operationalization. and management performance. The current requirements arising from Romania's integration into the European Union, from the globalization of the world economy and from the transition to the knowledge-based economy, on the exercise of organizational management are expressly highlighted.
e) The international transfer of managerial know-how in Romanian companies is given special attention. There are two main ways to do this. First of all, the paper takes over and integrates the methodological contributions of many world-renowned management specialists: Peter Drucker, Michael Porter, Henry Mintzberg, Herbert Simon, Douglas McGregor, Octave Gélénier, Howard Stevenson, Longenecker, Charles Pringle, Richard Farmer , John Child, Philippe De Woot, Igor Ansoff sa
Secondly, for each of the five major managerial topics methodologically managerial, decisional, informational, organizational and human resources, the main trends worldwide are presented in a synthetic, systematized and updated manner. This offers the possibility for those who study the volume to know quickly and with little effort what is foreshadowed more valuable in management worldwide. These characteristics of the paper certainly give it a great utility for those interested in the management of the organization, managers, consultants, teachers and specialists in business management, students in the profiles: economic, technical, legal and psychosociological, who study management. They also represent the main recipients and beneficiaries of the work.

ION VERBONCU
OVIDIU NICOLESCU

CHAPTER 1
MANAGERIAL DESIGN OF THE ORGANIZATION
/ 15
1.1. Outlining a new managerial approach / 15
1.2. The need to design and redesign the organization's management / 16
1.3. Methodological content of managerial redesign / 18
1.3.2. The design stage of the managerial system of the organization / 22
1.3.2.2. Analysis of the managerial system of the organization / 26
1.3.2.3. The actual design of the management system of the organization / 27
1.3.3.1. Elaboration of the project of the implementation program of the managerial system / 31
1.3.3.2. Approval of the management system implementation program / 33
1.3.3.3. Presentation of the implementation program of the organization's staff / 33
1.3.3.4. The actual implementation of the new management system / 33
1.3.3.5. Monitoring, evaluation and control of the functioning of the new management system during the run-in period / 34
1.3.4. The stage of global evaluation of the functionality and performances of the managerial system / 34
1.4. Application regarding the redesign of the management of S.C. TEXTILISTUL S.A / 35
1.4.1. Diagnosis of economic and managerial viability / 35
1.4.2. Development of the global strategy / 44
1.4.3. Redesign of the management system / 46
Bibliography / 52

CHAPTER 2
STRATEGY IMPLEMENTATION METHODOLOGY
/ 53
2.1. Various methodological approaches to the organization's strategy / 54
2.2. Substantiation of the strategy / 55
2.2.1. The premises of the strategy / 55
2.2.1.1. Differentiating the strategy according to the life phase of the company / 56
2.2.1.2. Taking into account the stakeholders of the organization / 57
2.2.1.3. Ensuring the continuity of the elaboration and application of the organization's strategies and policies / 57
2.2.1.4. Achieving a multidimensional global strategy / 58
2.2.1.5. Systemic approach to strategy development and implementation / 59
2.2.1.6. Taking into account the impact of internationalization of economic activities / 59
2.2.1.7. Realization of the international transfer of managerial know-how / 60
2.2.1.8. Flexible operationalization of the strategy / 61
2.2.2. Ways to substantiate the strategy / 61
2.2.2.1. Identifying and taking into account scientific, technical, commercial, financial, managerial forecasts, etc. regarding the environment in which the organization operates / 61
2.2.2.2. Carrying out complex diagnostic studies and SWOT / 62 analyzes
2.2.2.3. Carrying out in-depth marketing studies / 62
2.2.2.4. Carrying out ecological studies / 63
2.3. Strategy development / 63
2.3.1. Formulation of the organization's mission / 63
2.3.2. Specifying the fundamental objectives / 65
2.3.3. Establishing strategic options / 66
2.3.4. Sizing the necessary resources / 66
2.3.5. Setting the deadlines for achieving the objectives and carrying out the strategic options / 67
2.3.6. Establishing the competitive advantage / 67
2.3.7. Harmonization of the components of the global strategy of the organization / 69
2.3.8. Establishing partial strategies / 69
2.3.9. Formulation of the global policy and of the partial policies of the organization / 71
2.4. Implementation of the strategy / 71
2.4.1. Preparing to implement the strategy / 72
2.4.2. Integral or partial remodeling of the managerial system of the organization / 73
2.4.3. Operation of the planned strategic changes / 73
2.4.4. Supervision of implementation and evaluation of strategy results / 74
2.4.5. Design and operationalization of certain improvements / 74
2.4.6. Stakeholder motivation / 75
2.5. Impas case study at SC Confectia SA / 76
2.5.1. Presentation of the case / 76
Bibliography / 84

CHAPTER 3
METHODOLOGICAL-MANAGERIAL SYSTEM
/ 85
3.1. Redesigning the methodological-managerial system / 87
3.1.1. Approaching the redesign of the methodological-managerial subsystem in the context of the overall redesign of the managerial system of the organization / 87
3.1.1.1. Premise / 87
3.1.1.2. (Re) designing the methodological-managerial subsystem in the conditions of (re) designing the entire managerial system / 87
3.1.2. Separate design, only of the methodological-managerial system / 90
3.1.3. Major aspects regarding the implementation of the methodological-managerial system project / 92
3.1.3.1. Elaboration of a rigorous implementation program / 92
3.1.3.2. Ensuring a climate conducive to job change / 93
3.1.3.3. Wide decisional and operational involvement of managers in the implementation of the new methodological-managerial system / 94
3.2. Management systems and methods / 97
3.2.1. General management systems and methods / 97
3.2.1.1. Management is the basis of profit centers / 97
3.2.1.2. Management by objectives / 112
3.2.1.3. Product management / 115
3.2.1.4. Budget management / 118
3.2.1.5. Exception management / 120
3.2.1.6. Participatory management / 123
3.2.1.7. Project management / 126
3.2.2. Specific management methods and techniques / 134
3.2.2.1. Diagnostic method / 134
3.2.2.2. Sedinta / 138
3.2.2.3. Delegation / 141
3.2.2.4. Dashboard / 145
3.2.3. Methods and techniques for stimulating staff creativity / 151
3.2.3.1. Brainstorming / 152
3.2.3.2. Philips method 66/153
3.2.3.3. Synectica / 154
3.2.3.4. The matrix of discoveries / 154
3.2.3.5. Delbecq method / 156
3.2.3.6. Delphi Method / 157
3.2.4. Cost management methods and techniques / 158
3.2.4.1. Command method / 158
3.2.4.2. Normative method / 159
3.2.4.3. Car-hour tax method / 159
3.2.4.4. Cost-time-production system (SCOP) / 160
3.2.4.5. Value analysis / 160
3.3. World trends in the methodological-managerial approach / 161
3.3.1. Extensive proliferation of management systems, methods and techniques / 162
3.3.2. Increasing the degree of sophistication of the methodological-managerial elements / 163
3.3.3. Increasing computerization of managerial tools / 164
3.3.4. Outlining a participatory dimension of the methodological-managerial system of the organization / 164
3.3.5. The ascendancy of methodological-managerial elements with a strong motivational content / 165
3.3.6. Impression of a systemic vision accentuated to the conception and use of the managerial instrumentation / 166
3.3.7. Internationalization of management systems, methods and techniques / 167
3.3.8. Professionalization of the implementation of the managerial instrumentation / 167
3.4. Applications and case studies / 168
3.4.1. Case study on objective management at S.C. The future S.A./168
3.4.1.1. Presentation of the case / 168
3.4.1.2. Topics for discussion / 170
3.4.2. Application regarding the dashboard within an industrial company / 170
3.4.3. Case study on the use of the brainstorming method at S.C. ”OMNIA” S.A / 175
3.4.3.1. Case presentation / 175
3.4.3.2. Topics for discussion / 176
Bibliography / 176

CHAPTER 4
DECISION-MAKING THE DECISION-MAKING SYSTEM AND THE DECISION-MAKING INSTRUMENTARY
 / 179
4.1. Methodology for redesigning the decision - making system of the organization / 180
4.1.1. Stage I - Collection, registration and grouping of information regarding the decision system / 180
4.1.2. Stage II - Analysis of the decision system / 183
4.1.3. Stage III - Redesigning the decision system / 184
4.2. Modern approaches to the strategic decision - making process / 185
4.2.1. The main decision - making approaches / 186
4.2.2. Strategic normative decision model / 187
4.3. Decision methods and techniques / 191
4.3.1. Preliminary considerations / 191
4.3.2. Methods and techniques for optimizing multicriteria decisions under certainty / 192
4.3.2.1. Methodological specifications / 192
4.3.2.2. Additive method / 195
4.3.2.3. Global utility method / 195
4.3.2.4. ELECTRE / 196 method
4.3.2.5. ONICESCU method / 197
4.3.2.6. Coefficient method K / 198
4.3.3. Methods and techniques for optimizing decisions in conditions of uncertainty / 199
4.3.3.1. Pessimistic technique / 199
4.3.3.2. Hurwicz's technique / 200
4.3.3.3. Bayes-Laplace Technique / 200
4.3.3.4. The technique of minimizing regrets / 201
4.3.4. Methods and techniques for optimizing decisions in risk conditions / 201
4.3.4.1. Mathematical hope method / 201
4.3.4.2. Decision tree method / 202
4.3.5. Methods and techniques for optimizing group decisions / 206
4.3.5.1. Preliminary considerations / 206
4.3.5.2. Three-dimensional ELECTRE method / 206
4.3.6. Other decision methods and techniques / 209
4.3.6.1. Decision table / 209
4.3.6.2. Decisional simulation / 210
4.4.1. Personalization of the decision / 213
4.4.2. Computerization of the decision / 215
4.4.3. Decision - making methodology / 216
4.4.4. Contextualization of decision - making processes / 217
4.4.5. Multidimensional decisional efficiency / 219
4.5. Decision problems / 221
4.5.1. Variants of production structuring / 221
4.5.2. Possible strategies / 221
4.5.3. Investment variant / 223
4.5.4. Establishing the production volume to be manufactured / 223
Bibliography / 224

CHAPTER 5
DESIGN AND MODERNIZATION OF THE INFORMATION SUBSYSTEM /
227
5.1. Theoretical-methodological foundations of the design of the informational-managerial subsystem / 227
5.1.1. Principles for substantiating the information system / 227
5.1.1.1. Subordination of the design and operation of the information system to the requirements of the organization's management / 228
5.1.1.2. Close correlation of the information system with the decision-making system and with the structural organization of the organization / 228
5.1.1.3. Achieving the methodological unit of information processing / 228
5.1.1.4. Focus on essential deviations / 229
5.1.1.5. Ensuring an adequate reaction time to the components and the whole management system / 229
5.1.1.6. Obtaining maximum final information from the primary information fund / 229
5.1.1.7. Achieving informational-managerial flexibility / 229
5.1.1.8. Ensuring the effectiveness and efficiency of information and organization / 230
5.1.2. Information rationality requirements / 230
5.1.3. Prevention and elimination of major information deficiencies / 232
5.1.3.1. Distortion / 232
5.1.3.2. Filtering / 232
5.1.3.3. Redundant / 233
5.1.3.4. Information circuit overload / 233
5.2. The stages of redesigning the informational-managerial system / 233
5.2.1. Preliminary considerations / 233
5.2.2. Initiation of the redesign study / 234
5.2.3. Identification of informational elements of the investigated field / 239
5.2.4. Critical analysis of the information system / 240
5.2.5. Information system redesign / 242
5.2.6. Implementation of information improvements / 244
5.3. The main tendencies in the conception and functioning of the informational-managerial system / 246
5.3.1. Dematerialization and disintermediation of information / 247
5.3.2. Computerization of work tasks and staff training / 248
5.3.3. Information outsourcing or outsourcing / 249
5.3.4. Proliferation of Internet and Intranet / 250 based communication systems
5.3.6. Informational scrutiny / 252
5.3.7. Outlining the virtual enterprise / 252
5.3.8. Crystallization of information management / 253
5.4. Case study on the information system specific to "human resources" / 255
5.4.1. Presentation of the case / 255
5.4.1.1. Brief presentation / 255
5.4.1.2. Information system of the personnel function / 256
5.4.2. Problems to solve / 259
Bibliography / 259

CHAPTER 6
ORGANIZATIONAL SUBSYSTEM DESIGN
/ 261
6.1. Coordinates of organizational redesign / 262
6.2. Methodology of rational organizational structuring of the company / 263
6.2.1. Overview of the methodology / 263
6.2.2. Principles of organizational structuring / 263
6.2.2.1. The principle of participatory management / 265
6.2.2.2. The principle of the supremacy of objectives / 265
6.2.2.3. The principle of unity of decision and action / 265
6.2.2.4. The principle of approaching the management of execution / 265
6.2.2.5. The principle of minimum organizational interdependence / 266
6.2.2.6. The principle of permanent management / 267
6.2.2.7. The principle of communications economy / 267
6.2.2.8. The principle of harmonized definition of functions and positions / 267
6.2.2.9. The principle of concordance of the job requirements with the characteristics of the holder / 267
6.2.2.10. The principle of establishing intercompartmental teams / 268
6.2.2.11. The principle of organizational flexibility / 268
6.2.2.12. The principle of effectiveness and efficiency of structures / 268
6.2.2.13. The principle of determining the optimal variant of the organizational subsystem / 268
6.2.2.14. The principle of representing the structure of the organizational subsystem in documents / 268
6.2.3. Organizational criteria / 269
6.2.4. Substantiation on the organization 's strategy / 269
6.2.5. Interdependence between organizational variables and the organizational structure of the company / 270
6.2.6. Methods and techniques for registration and analysis of organizational solutions / 272
6.2.6.1. General presentation of methods and techniques / 272
6.2.6.2. Correlation analysis / 273
6.2.6.3. Self - photography of working time / 273
6.2.6.4. Comparison according to the main hypostases of the organizational variable / 273
6.2.6.5. Organizational comparison by groups of companies / 274
6.2.6.6. Timing of working time / 274
6.2.6.7. Function description / 274
6.2.6.8. Job description / 275
6.2.6.9. Diagram of attributions / 277
6.2.6.10. Relationship diagram / 278
6.2.6.11. Routine diagram / 279
6.2.6.12. Filming work processes / 280
6.2.7. Elaboration of the organizational structure / 280
6.3. Trends in the approach and functioning of the organizational subsystem / 282
6.3.1. Remodeling the organizational subsystem based on the value chain / 282
6.3.2. Outsourcing of activities / 283
6.3.4. Reconfiguration of organizational functions and positions in a new vision / 284
6.3.5. Extension of organizational subdivisions with double functionality / 285
6.3.6. Development of complex stakeholder relations / 285
6.3.7. Crystallization of new types of organization and organizations / 287
6.3.8. Outlining and expanding company networks and "clusters" / 289
6.4. Case study on the rationalization of the organizational structure of S.C. OMNIA S.A / 291
6.4.1. Presentation of the case / 291
6.4.2. Topics for discussion / 296
Bibliography / 296

CHAPTER 7
DESIGN OF THE HUMAN RESOURCES MANAGEMENT SUBSYSTEM
 / 299
7.1. Peculiarities of the redesign of the human resources management subsystem / 299
7.2. Approaches to the redesign of the human resources management subsystem by various specialists / 301
7.2.1. The approach of the group from Iasi / 301
7.2.2. Armstrong's approach / 302
7.3.2. Redesign of the human resources management subsystem within the overall redesign of the management system / 304
7.3.2.1. Building the team of specialists that will carry out the redesign of the human resources management subsystem / 304
7.3.2.2. Establishing the objectives and the scope of the design / 306
7.3.2.3. Elaboration of the redesign program of the human resources management subsystem / 307
7.3.2.4. Analysis of the human resources management subsystem / 308
7.3.2.5. Design of the human resources management subsystem / 310
7.3.2.6. Elaboration of the specific program for the implementation of the human resources management project / 311
7.3.2.7. Implementation of the human resources management subsystem / 313
7.3.2.8. Evaluation of the functionality and performances of the new subsystem / 314
7.3.3. Independent redesign of the human resources management subsystem / 316
7.3.3.1. Situations in which this type of redesign is necessary / 316
7.3.3.2. Differences from the variant of redesigning the human resources management subsystem integrated in the redesign of the organization's management system / 317
7.4. Methods and techniques specific to human resources management / 318
7.4.1. The main specific methods and techniques / 318
7.4.2. Use of specific methods and techniques during the redesign of the human resources management subsystem / 323
7.5. Involvement of the manager and human resources specialists in the design, operationalization and increase of the performances of the human resources managerial subsystem / 323
7.5.1. Human resources managers / 328
7.5.2. Specialists in human resources / 330
7.6. Trends in human resources management / 331
7.6. Case study - Human resources management at SC Gentilom Brand SA / 335
7.6.1. Presentation of the case / 335
7.6.2. Topics for discussion / 340
Bibliography / 340

CHAPTER 8
EFFECTIVENESS AND EFFICIENCY OF ORGANIZATION MANAGEMENT
/ 343
8.1. The contribution of the management to the increase of the organization 's competitiveness / 344
8.1.1. Management - determinant vector of economic development and growth / 344
8.1.2. Competitiveness and competitive advantage of the organization / 344
8.1.3. Management, main generator of added value / 349
8.2. The specifics of the company's management efficiency / 351
8.3. Evaluation of quantifiable managerial efficiency / 352
8.3.1. Evaluation of direct managerial efficiency / 352
8.3.2. Evaluation of total managerial efficiency / 353
8.4. Evaluation of non-quantifiable managerial efficiency / 357
8.4.1. Content of non - quantifiable efficiency / 357
8.4.2. Way of evaluating the non-quantifiable managerial efficiency / 358
8.5. Comparative evaluation of management efficiency through benchmarking / 360
8.5.1. The concept of benchmarking / 360
8.5.2. Typology of benchmarking studies / 362
8.5.3. Implementation methodologies / 363
8.6. Organization Management Efficiency Guide / 366
8.6.1. Diagnosis of the organization / 366
8.6.2. Elaboration of the organization's strategy / 368
8.6.3. Management system redesign / 369
8.6.4. The actual implementation of the new management system / 373
8.6.5. Evaluation of the functionality, effectiveness and efficiency of the management system / 376
8.7. Promoting professional management - guaranteeing the functionality and performance of enterprises / 377
8.8. Case study - Managerial problems at the company "AS" S.A / 378
8.7.1. Case presentation / 378
8.7.2. Case analysis / 382
Bibliography / 382

In the managerial literature in Romania, this volume is a significant presence from several points of view.
a) The paper has a pronounced methodological character, being one of the few works focused exclusively on the methodological side of the organization's management. Over 90% of its content is represented by managerial methodologies, methods, techniques, procedures, principles, rules and methodological management requirements. In other words, the paper includes what is of priority interest to those who want to practice a professional management, generating economic performance.
b) The volume is built entirely in a systemic vision. It is probably one of the few elaborate management of such proportions that treats the management of the organization exclusively in a systemic vision. The first chapter incorporates methodologies for designing or redesigning the management system of the organization, made in a holistic perspective. Next, in the same perspective, successive design methodologies for the major managerial components are presented, strategy, methodological-managerial subsystem, decisional subsystem, informational subsystem, organizational structural subsystem, human resources management subsystem ending with a chapter dedicated to the effectiveness and efficiency of management. managerial and organizational.
c) The paper has as prevalent dimension the applicability or the organizational pragmatism. There are three elements that give it this essential characteristic: the managerial methodologies presented in each chapter, conceived in an operational vision, from the point of view of the manager and the specialist called to implement them; applied methods and techniques structured, not a few accompanied by model applications for their use; the numerous case studies that incorporate representative managerial studies for the most important elements treated in the paper. When printing the applicative dimension, a major contribution has a long and intensive experience of management consultants of the two authors. The fact that, currently, they offer management consultations to companies being among the few Romanian specialists who redesign company management systems is reflected in the way they perceive and treat managerial problems pronounced pragmatically, from the point of view specific to company management.
d) The approach of the managerial elements is carried out through the prism of the current needs and requirements of the commercial companies that make up the Romanian economy. Unlike almost all the management papers published by local specialists who deal with the problems of Romanian companies, ignoring their cultural and economic specificity and Romania's integration into the European Union, this volume starts and constantly considers these realities with a decisive impact on the operationalization. and management performance. The current requirements arising from Romania's integration into the European Union, from the globalization of the world economy and from the transition to the knowledge-based economy, on the exercise of organizational management are expressly highlighted.
e) The international transfer of managerial know-how in Romanian companies is given special attention. There are two main ways to do this. First of all, the paper takes over and integrates the methodological contributions of many world-renowned management specialists: Peter Drucker, Michael Porter, Henry Mintzberg, Herbert Simon, Douglas McGregor, Octave Gélénier, Howard Stevenson, Longenecker, Charles Pringle, Richard Farmer , John Child, Philippe De Woot, Igor Ansoff sa
Secondly, for each of the five major managerial topics methodologically managerial, decisional, informational, organizational and human resources, the main trends worldwide are presented in a synthetic, systematized and updated manner. This offers the possibility for those who study the volume to know quickly and with little effort what is foreshadowed more valuable in management worldwide. These characteristics of the paper certainly give it a great utility for those interested in the management of the organization, managers, consultants, teachers and specialists in business management, students in the profiles: economic, technical, legal and psychosociological, who study management. They also represent the main recipients and beneficiaries of the work. From them we expect suggestions and observations that will be useful in future editions of the volume.
Finally, we specify that this new edition of the volume is updated taking into account the main managerial, scientific and pragmatic evolutions worldwide achieved after 2000 and the multiple transformations in companies and the Romanian economy, in the context of accelerating development and integration into the European Union.

Prof. univ. Dr. Ovidiu Nicolescu

 

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