Editura Universitara Commercial Transactions. Applications and Case Studies

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18,00 Lei 14,40 Lei

ISBN: 978-606-28-0717-7

DOI: 10.5682/9786062807177

Publisher year: 2018

Pages: 134

Publisher: Universitară

Author: Oana Mionel, Oana Mihaela Orheian

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The moment you have so many products, so much information available at such high speeds, the ability to gain an advantage over the competition and to seize an opportunity before someone else notices it decreases more and more. Now, traders have to resort more and more to all the tricks to find that tiny benefit that could bring them an advantage over the rest of the world.
Today, we live in an age where the Internet defines trade, education and communications. In this context, there will be two types of business in the world: Internet business and anti-Internet business.
Internet businesses are those businesses that can really be done through the Internet, from book sales to brokerage and games. Anti-Internet businesses are those businesses that cannot run on the Internet, such as cutting or steelmaking.
As the Internet becomes the backbone of global trade, education and communications, the quality and scope of networking across countries will be crucial in determining their economic strength. Microsoft measures the power of countries by indexing the number of computers per head of inhabitant. In this sense, the highest growth was recorded for Microsoft in Asia, more precisely in South Korea. The increase in the number of computers per capita entails what we now call Evernet, a world in which we are always online.
The detachment of the Internet from the personal computer supports the existence of the Evernet, thus being able to navigate through the watch worn by hand, the phone not missing from the pocket or bag or through other communication tools. Following this path, countries are increasingly being valued according to how close they are to the universal connection, how close they are to the moment when all the inhabitants will always be online, no matter where they are and how rich is the range of services it offers to Evernet (online courses offered by universities and other specialized organizations and institutions, convenient and multifunctional communication tools, so that people can take them with them all the time).
Although Evernetul is important, it is very important how well and how creatively Evernetul countries and companies use it. From this point of view, "modeling" countries / companies and "adapter" countries / companies are distinguished.
Modellers are those strong companies / companies / activists who define the rules and interactions that will govern a certain activity in this world of Evernet, whether it is a profitable activity, provokes a war, convinces a government or a corporation to respect human rights.
Adapters are those companies that adapt to the rules and framework of interaction modeled by others and learn to take advantage of them by building their own comfortable shelter.
Modellers and adapters can influence the buying behavior or habits of a huge number of people from one end of the world to the other. An example of a good economic modeler is eBay. This site came out of the blue and in three years has created a new set of rules and forms of interaction through which consumers can buy and sell various things on the World Wide Web.
  • Tranzactii comerciale. Aplicatii si studii de caz

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OANA MIONEL
Doctor in economics, title awarded by the Academy of Economic Studies and, at the same time, associate professor at the Faculty of International Economic Relations within the "Dimitrie Cantemir" Christian University.
The author of this paper teaches at the mentioned faculty the subjects: Technique of international payments and financing and International stock exchanges.

OANA MIHAELA ORHEIAN

COMMERCIAL TRANSACTIONS IN THE ERA OF GLOBALIZATION AND EVERNET / 7
Evernet, adapters and modelers / 7
The Internet and fakes / 12

GUIDE FOR THE FUTURE EXPORTER / 19
Export plan / 19
Development of an export plan for an export to Austria / 25
Market and customers / 26
Sale and transport / 27
Advertising and media / 31
Financing / 32
Import regulations / 32
Offer, contract and price / 34
Ltd., Inc., GmbH or S.A. in company names / 35

COMMERCIAL "LETTER" / 38
Request for offer / 38
Offer / 42
Command / 47
Presentation catalog / 50

CONTRACT OF SALE - INTERNATIONAL PURCHASE OF GOODS / 57
Model contract of sale - international purchase of cereals / 57
Model sale - purchase contract for export / 63
FinTech, CONTACTLESS AND CRYPTOMONEDELE / 72
FinTech - Financial Technology / 72
Contactless / 78
Cryptocurrencies / 82

COFACE ROMANIA AND EXIMBANK / 85

FIRST STEPS IN FOREIGN TRADE ACTIVITY / 90

GRID TESTS / 93

BIBLIOGRAPHY / 130

The moment you have so many products, so much information available at such high speeds, the ability to gain an advantage over the competition and to seize an opportunity before someone else notices it decreases more and more. Now, traders have to resort more and more to all the tricks to find that tiny benefit that could bring them an advantage over the rest of the world.
Today, we live in an age where the Internet defines trade, education and communications. In this context, there will be two types of business in the world: Internet business and anti-Internet business.
Internet businesses are those businesses that can really be done through the Internet, from book sales to brokerage and games. Anti-Internet businesses are those businesses that cannot run on the Internet, such as cutting or steelmaking.
As the Internet becomes the backbone of global trade, education and communications, the quality and scope of networking across countries will be crucial in determining their economic strength. Microsoft measures the power of countries by indexing the number of computers per head of inhabitant. In this sense, the highest growth was recorded for Microsoft in Asia, more precisely in South Korea. The increase in the number of computers per capita entails what we now call Evernet, a world in which we are always online.
The detachment of the Internet from the personal computer supports the existence of the Evernet, thus being able to navigate through the watch worn by hand, the phone not missing from the pocket or bag or through other communication tools. Following this path, countries are increasingly being valued according to how close they are to the universal connection, how close they are to the moment when all the inhabitants will always be online, no matter where they are and how rich is the range of services it offers to Evernet (online courses offered by universities and other specialized organizations and institutions, convenient and multifunctional communication tools, so that people can take them with them all the time).
Although Evernetul is important, it is very important how well and how creatively Evernetul countries and companies use it. From this point of view, "modeling" countries / companies and "adapter" countries / companies are distinguished.
Modellers are those strong companies / companies / activists who define the rules and interactions that will govern a certain activity in this world of Evernet, whether it is a profitable activity, provokes a war, convinces a government or a corporation to respect human rights.
Adapters are those companies that adapt to the rules and framework of interaction modeled by others and learn to take advantage of them by building their own comfortable shelter.
Modellers and adapters can influence the buying behavior or habits of a huge number of people from one end of the world to the other. An example of a good economic modeler is eBay. This site came out of the blue and in three years has created a new set of rules and forms of interaction through which consumers can buy and sell various things on the World Wide Web.
eBay brings together sellers and buyers on the Internet, creating a new market for commercial transactions, in addition to the classic classified ads or other traditional trading centers and they have created their own set of rules. Every person who is evaluated through eBay is evaluated by the people who do business with it. If a person is cheated through ebay, the cheater will never be able to do business through this network because everyone on the World Wide Web will find out about the scam.
The advent of Evernet makes it possible for more and more people to make eBay transactions in a wide variety of fields - from housing construction to the sale of steel or plastics. These transactions bring together sellers and buyers in a particular branch in a way that allows for efficient negotiation, sale and trading of goods on a global scale.
If a country / company can become the modeler of one or more such expertise - e-steel, e-rubber, e-cement in the great sphere of Evernet will be a real source of power.
Microsoft is another example of a modeler. It has brought together consumers and companies in a value network based on its technologies, standards, software and operating systems. To be an efficient modeler you need to be able to attract a lot of adapters. Not all modelers made their debut as modelers. An example of this is Dell. Dell debuted as an adapter. It took existing technology, IBM computers, and brilliantly adapted them through creative manufacturing techniques. Dell has become part of the IBM value chain. In time, dell in turn became a modeler. In his effort u To become IBM's best computer adapter, Dell has innovatively modeled new ways to use the Internet to reach consumers and control suppliers and inventors. In doing so, IBM created its own value chain and became an adapter of Dell's Internet-based production and inventory techniques.
In a world increasingly built around the Evernet, the ability of any global government institution to manage and impose certain taxes or behaviors is limited - whether it's Interpol, which seeks to track illegal financial transfers through The Internet from the Cayman Islands to the Channel Islands, or the World Trade Organization is trying to assess how trade in cyberspace can be regulated.
In a connected, wallless world, the future belongs to creators and adapters, and they can be companies or consumers, superpowers or superpowered individuals.

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