Editura Universitara Commercial transactions. From national to international

29,00 Lei

Publisher: Universitară

Author: Oana Mionel

ISBN: 978-606-28-0432-9

DOI: 10.5682/9786062804329

Publisher year: 2016

Edition: a II-a, revizuita si adaugita

Pages: 198

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This book is designed to give you an overview of business transactions and how the transition from domestic to international business has been made. The paper is addressed primarily to students at the Faculty of Tourism and Commercial Management, but also to other readers interested in the mechanism of operation of commercial transactions.
The paper presents basic notions for commercial transactions. In making this book we started from the emergence and evolution of commercial transactions and we continued with the forms of derealization of exports, sale-purchase contract, tools and methods of payment, transactions, techniques for making commercial transactions, commodity exchanges and fair trade. 
The paper is structured in nine chapters, all chapters are written in a style accessible to students and other readers, but with clear details on all specialized terms used in the field of economics and international business.
  • Tranzactii comerciale. De la national la international

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OANA MIONEL
Doctor in economics, title awarded by the Academy of Economic Studies and, at the same time, associate professor at the Faculty of International Economic Relations within the "Dimitrie Cantemir" Christian University.
The author of this paper teaches at the mentioned faculty the subjects: Technique of international payments and financing and International stock exchanges.

Foreword / 9

CHAPTER 1
THE EVOLUTION OF COMMERCIAL TRANSACTIONS
/ 11
1.1. History of commercial transactions / 11
1.2. The new world economy / 14
1.2.1. Regionalization and economic integration / 14
1.2.1.1. Free trade area / 15
1.2.1.2. Customs Union / 16
1.2.1.3. Common market / 16
1.2.1.4. Economic Union / 17
1.2.1.5. Economic and monetary union / 18
1.2.2. Globalization of the world economy / 18
1.2.2.1. Standardization / 19
1.2.2.2. Specialization / 22
1.2.2.3. Synchronization / 23
1.2.2.4. Concentration / 24
1.2.2.5. Maximization / 25
1.2.2.6. Centralization / 26
1.2.3. Electronic economy / 30

CHAPTER 2
COMMERCIAL TRANSACTIONS - FROM BARTER TO A CLICK DISTANCE
/ 33
2.1. The scope of the concept of commercial transactions (international) / 33
2.2. Taxonomy of commercial transactions / 38
2.3. Business internationalization and motivational factors / 44
2.4. Reference modalities in carrying out commercial transactions / 54
2.4.1. Direct export / 54
2.4.2. Export through intermediaries / 57
2.4.3. Indirect export / 61

CHAPTER 3
PRE-CONTRACTUAL OPERATIONS AND INTERNATIONAL CONTRACT OF SALE-PURCHASE OF GOODS
/ 63
3.1. Pre - contractual operations / 63
3.1.1. Offer / 64
3.1.2. Request for offer / 65
3.1.3. Command / 66
3.2. International sale-purchase contract of goods / 66
3.2.1. Conceptual framework / 66
3.2.2. Elements of the international sale-purchase contract of goods / 68

CHAPTER 4
PAYMENT INSTRUMENTS USED IN COMMERCIAL TRANSACTIONS
/ 84
4.1. Check / 84
4.1.1. Defining elements / 84
4.1.2. Classification of checks / 87
4.1.3. Traveler's check / 88
4.1.4. Check operations / 91
4.1.5. Risks of using checks / 94
4.2. Promissory note / 94
4.3. Payment order / 95
4.4. Electronic payments / 96
4.4.1. Electronic check / 97
4.4.2. Electronic payment order / 98
4.4.3. Electronic signature / 99

CHAPTER 5
METHODS OF PAYMENT USED IN COMMERCIAL TRANSACTIONS
/ 102
5.1. Documentary letter of credit / 102
5.1.1. Definition and characteristics of the documentary letter of credit / 102
5.1.2. The parties involved in the development of the documentary letter of credit / 103
5.2.3. Contracts and the mechanism of conducting the documentary letter of credit / 105
5.3.4. Types of documentary letters of credit / 108
5.3.5. Documents used in the payment of the documentary letter of credit / 115
5.3.6. Advantages and disadvantages of using the documentary letter of credit / 117
5.2. Documentary collection / 119
5.2.1. Definition and characteristics of the documentary collection / 119
5.2.2. The parties involved in the conduct of the documentary collection / 119
5.2.3. The mechanism for carrying out the documentary collection / 121
5.2.4. Advantages and disadvantages of using the documentary collection / 123

CHAPTER 6
CONDUCT OF COMMERCIAL TRANSACTIONS
/ 125
6.1. Preparation of delivery of goods for export / 125
6.2. International expedition / 130
6.3. Insurance of goods / 132
6.4. Customs clearance / 134
6.5. Contractual liability / 137

CHAPTER 7
TECHNIQUES FOR CARRYING OUT INTERNATIONAL TRADE TRANSACTIONS
/ 139
7.1. Combined business operations / 139
7.1.1. Counterpart / 139
7.1.2. Re-export / 141
7.1.3. Lohnul / 142
7.2. Complex commercial operations / 144
7.2.1. International transfer of technology and knowledge / 144
7.2.2. Franchise / 144
7.2.3. Leasing / 149

CHAPTER 8
INTERNATIONAL GOODS EXCHANGE
/ 159
8.1. The specifics of international exchanges of / 160
8.2. Definition of the international commodity exchange / 161
8.3. Functions of international commodity exchanges / 162
8.4. Characteristics of goods traded on the stock exchange / 162
8.5. Commodity exchanges versus international auctions / 163
8.6. The main international commodity exchanges in the world / 170
American market / 170
8.6.1. CME Group / 170
8.6.2. Intercontinental Exchange / 173
European market / 176
8.6.3. Antwerp World Diamond Center / 176
8.6.4. London Metal Exchange / 177
Asian market / 178
8.6.5. Tokyo Commodity Exchange / 178

CHAPTER 9
TRADE IN "FAIR TRADE" PRODUCTS
/ 180
9.1. The notion of "fairtrade" products / 180
9.2. Supermarkets / 183
9.3. Fair trade products / 185
9.4. Where are fairtrade products produced and consumed? / 186
9.5. Internationalization of fair trade? / 191

BIBLIOGRAPHY / 193

The tendencies and mutations appeared at the level of the world economy show us that, at the beginning of the 21st century, the mechanism of commercial transactions was adapted according to the preferences and complex requirements of the economic agents from the country and from abroad.
Thus, this book has been designed to provide an overview of commercial transactions and how the transition from domestic to international commercial transactions has taken place. The paper is addressed primarily to students at the Faculty of Tourism and Commercial Management, but also to other readers interested in the mechanism of operation of commercial transactions.
The paper presents basic notions for commercial transactions. In making this book we started from the emergence and evolution of commercial transactions and we continued with the forms of derealization of exports, sale-purchase contract, tools and methods of payment, transactions, techniques for making commercial transactions, commodity exchanges and fair trade. .
The paper is structured in nine chapters, all chapters are written in a style accessible to students and other readers, but with clear details on all specialized terms used in the field of economics and international business.
Good luck, dear students!

The Author

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