Publisher year: 2008
Author: Cristina Păiuşan-Nuică
The Middle East has been and continues to be one of the most tense in the world after the Second World War. The establishment of Israel on 14 May 1948 was received with hostility by the leaders of Arab countries, who did not accept the existence of such a state the territory they considered as the cradle of civilization dominated by the cult of Muhammad. In turn, Israel has sought to strengthen its international status, replying to violence with violence, using technical means and achieving much higher success each time, followed by the extension of national territory.
Romanian-Israeli relations took place against the background of the two states belonging to the hostile camps during the Cold War: Romania was under Soviet tutelage, while Israel get U.S. support. On the other hand, the problem of emigration of Jews from Romania in the Holy Land supported by the State of Israel, the U.S. and Western countries, was regarded with hostility by officials in Bucharest, which conform with directives from Moscow. Against this background, the official propaganda, both in Romania and in Israel, created the image of strained relations and irreconcilable, which does not correspond only partially true.
First they were not linear but sinuous and have evolved in their essence, positive, especially after 1958. Being under Soviet occupation and part of the Warsaw Pact, Romania has taken a while, like other socialist states, the line drawn by the Kremlin. Bucharest regime gradually began to adopt an independent policy, which has resulted in relations with Israel. The most significant moment occurred in 1967, when Romania was not subject to Soviet directives on severance of diplomatic relations with Israel, as did other members of the Warsaw Pact. Moreover, Nicolae Ceausescu personally involved in the Israeli-Egyptian negotiations, which would lead to peace agreements signed at Camp David in September 1978.
This evolution of the Romanian-Israeli relations, complex and difficult, was the attention-Nuică Cristina Păiuşan for many years and has resulted in some considerable contributions to the volume entitled Romania - Israel Diplomatic Documents (1949 - 1969), published in 2000 under the coordination of Dumitru Preda.
This book is, in fact, Mrs. Cristina thesis Păiuşan-Nuică prepared under my coordination, which was held at the Faculty of History, University of Bucharest on 29th March 2007. The work is based on archive documents in the Foreign Ministry, funds Israel, UN, Treaties Division, Iraq, Palestine, telegrams (Tel Aviv, Washington, Cairo), etc. Add funds from the Archive of the Ministry of National Defense and the Central Historical National Archives.
Publications of the period covered by the paper, including Hebrew, taken from the internet, volumes of documents in Romanian and English, Hebrew memoirs of important political leaders, American, Soviet and Romanian Egyptians were also important sources for developing his book. Cristina Păiuşan-Nuică used and works devoted to this theme studies and international relations in general, occurred in Romania, Israel, USA, France, Great Britain, Switzerland, Belgium and Sweden.
From the scrolling can be easily seen that literature most studies and works on Romania's relations with Israel refers to the emigration of Jews and Zionists process. This imbalance in addressing such a topic was a disability for the author, who had to consider all relations between the two countries: political-diplomatic, cultural, economic, without the detour on the minority issue in Romania Hebrew. The paper analyzed successively Romanian-Israeli relations under the influence of the Cold War (1948 - 1956), Romanians and Jews in the period 1957 - 1967, Romanian-Israeli relations and Arab-Israeli conflict in the years 1968 - 1973, and their evolution between 1974 and 1978.
The book is well structured, addresses the main aspects of the relations between Romania and Israel in a balanced and objective.
I am sure that readers will find interesting data and facts, but mostly will have an accurate picture of Romanian-Israeli relations and Arab-Israeli conflict in the Middle East in the years 1948 - 1978, will appreciate - by posting required and determined by flow years overcome "bottlenecks" political - Romania's capacity to understand and engage in a positive manner, in solving one of the most complex and delicate problems of the international community in the twentieth century.
prof. Dr. Ioan Scurtu
Cuvânt înainte / 7
Introducere / 9
Capitolul I. Relaţiile româno-israeliene sub influenţa războiului rece între 1948 şi 1956 / 23
1. Politică şi diplomaţie în anii 1949-1956 / 25
1.1. Tentative româno-israeliene de conciliere diplomatică / 40
1.2. Criza Suezului (octombrie 1956) şi relaţiile româno-israeliene / 45
1.3. PMR şi PCI, comunişti români şi comunişti evrei / 50
2. Organizaţiile evreilor proveniţi din statul român aflate în Israel şi cele ale evreilor din România, între propagandă şi relaţii culturale / 53
2.1. Comitetul Democrativ Evreiesc / 58
3. Comunitatea evreiască din România şi relaţiile dintre România şi Israel / 63
4. Emigrarea evreilor de origine românâ în perioada 1945 – 1956 / 68
4.1. Emigrarea şi epurările din PMR din 1952 / 78
4.2. Procesele sioniştilor din România / 80
4.3. Repatrierile – instrument al diplomaţiei războiului rece între propagandă şi realitate / 85
Capitolul II. Români şi evrei în perioada 1957 - 1967 / 101
1. Relaţiile politico-diplomatice bilaterale în context internaţional / 101
2. Relaţiile culturale româno – israeliene / 125
3. Emigrarea evreilor din România între interdicţii şi concesii / 126
Capitolul III. Relaţiile româno - israeliene şi conflictele arabo - israeliene 1968 – 1973 / 155
1. Diplomaţia română şi cea israeliană în perioada destinderii / 155
1.1. Diplomaţi români şi diplomaţi evrei şi înăbuşirea Primăverii de la Praga / 158
1.2. Ridicarea reprezentanţei române la Tel Aviv la rang de ambasadă şi ecourile sale internaţionale / 166
1.3. Vizita Goldei Meir la Bucureşti / 177
1.4. Medieri române între evrei şi arabi / 190
2. Relaţiile culturale româno-israeliene / 193
3. Emigrarea continuă în anii 1968 – 1973 / 194
Capitolul IV. O perspectivă asupra relaţiilor economice româno-israeliene 1948 - 1978 / 203
1. De la tatonări la schimburi economice 1948 –1956 / 203
2. Deceniul creşterii economice 1957 – 1967 / 206
3. Economie şi diplomaţie în perioada 1968 – 1978 / 211
3.1. Turismul de vizitare a rudelor / 214
Capitolul V. Destindere şi cooperare 1974-1978 / 219
1. Diplomaţie bilaterală în context internaţional / 219
1.1. George Macovescu vizitează Israelul în 1974 / 224
1.2. Iniţiative româneşti în relaţiile israeliano-arabe / 244
1.3. Ceauşescu şi vizita istorică a lui Sadat la Ierusalim / 251
2. Relaţiile culturale bilaterale / 259
3. O nouă etapă a emigrării evreilor români / 260
Concluzii / 277
Bibliografie / 288
Cristina Păiuşan Nuică is lecturer at the Faculty of International Relations and European Studies, University Spiru Haret.
She obtained his Ph.D. magna cum laude for his "Research Romanian relations with Israel and Middle East states. Diplomatic relations, bilateral economic relations, cultural relations".
A training and refresher courses in political science, European studies and international relations at the European School Ovidiu Sincai - under the aegis of the Council of Europe, the Summer University for Democracy, Strasbourg, Titulescu courses for young diplomats organized by the Foreign Ministry, the Romanian Academy and the Foundation Nicholas Titulescu rate per l'archiviazione di Processing AVANZ store documents, Ministero delle Attivita Produttive, Rome, Italy, in-depth studies "Romania and Europe in the twentieth century."
Today is the editor and producer of shows at TVRM Cultural, with a rich publishing activity in several historical publications.
She has published the following works:
- Protection of Timisoara, September 1944. Documents, Ed West, Timisoara, 1997, coauthor
- School of Infantry at the battles of Radna and Paulis. Documents, Helicon Publishing House Timisoara, 1999, coauthor
- Romania - Israel. Diplomatic documents, 1948-1969, Ministry of Foreign Affairs, Sylvi Publishing House, Bucharest, 2000, coauthor
- Repressive mechanisms in Romania, 1945-1989, Bibliographical Dictionary (AD), the court, Bucharest, 2001; collaborator
- Romanian Orthodox Church under communism, 1945-1958, INST, Bucharest, 2001, coauthor
- The communist regime in Romania, 1945-1989, Diplomatic History Political Publishing House Triton, Bucharest, 2002. co-author
- Titulescu - A great Romanian, a great European, a great contemporary. A photo-documentary refund, Titulescu European Foundation, Bucharest, 2002. co-author
- Romania - Poland Diplomatic Relations, vol I, 1918-1939, Ed Encyclopedic Universe, Bucharest, 2003. collaborator
- Romania - Vatican. Diplomatic documents, 1920-1950, vol I, Ministry of Foreign Affairs, Encyclopedic Publishing House, Bucharest 2003. co-author
- The Romanian Orthodox Church under the communist regime, vol I, 1945-1958, INST, Bucharest, 2003. co-author
- Titulescu. Politico-diplomatic work (July 1927-July 1928), Part I and Part II, Bucharest, 2003. co-author
- Repressive mechanisms in Romania, 1945-1989, Bibliographical Dictionary, vol II, (EG), the court, Bucharest, 2003. collaborator
- Titulescu - Opera political and diplomatic. Correspondence, Volume I, 1921 - 1931, Part I and Part II, FET, Bucharest, 2004. co-author
- Repressive mechanisms in Romania, 1945-1989, Bibliographical Dictionary, vol III (HL), the court, Bucharest, 2004, employee
- Titulescu. Politico-diplomatic work (August 1929-September 1931), Part I, Part II, Part III, Part IV, co-author
- Speeches in the Chamber of Deputies from 1864 to 1990. Oratory for Romania, Historia House, Bucharest, 2007, author
- History of International Relations and Diplomacy 1945 - 2007, House of Tomorrow Foundation Romania, Bucharest, 2008, author
- Romanian-Israeli Relations, 1948 - 1978, University Publishing and Publishing Historia, 2008, author
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