Editura Universitara Romania. Physical Geography, Vol I

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Publisher: Universitar─â

Author: Mihai Ielenicz, Ileana P─âtru

ISBN: 978-973-7787-47-1

Publisher year: 2007

Edition: II

Pages: 256

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The book "Romania. Physical Geography", vol. I, is addressed not only to students in the field of "Natural Sciences" (full-time courses, part-time, open distance learning), but also to teachers in pre-university education, as well as all those who will to know and understand as many of the Romanian geographical realities as possible.


MIHAI IELENICZ

ILEANA-GEORGETA PATRU

 

Preface / 5

CHAPTER I
ROMANIA - GEOGRAPHICAL SITUATION, BORDERS, DEFINITIVE COORDINATES
/ 5
1. The geographical position of Romania / 5
2. The borders of Romania / 9
3. Defining geographical coordinates / 10
3.1. Romania, Carpathian country / 10
3.2. Romania, the Danube country / 13
3.3. Romania, the poetic country - statement that leads to several explanations / 16
3.4. The geostrategic position of Romania / 19

CHAPTER II
GEOGRAPHICAL KNOWLEDGE OF THE ROMANIAN LAND
/ 22
1. Until the end of the 19th / 22
2. The modern stage of geographical knowledge / 24

CHAPTER III
FORMATION OF THE OROSTRUCTURAL SYSTEM OF ROMANIA
/ 29
1. Paleographic evolution / 29
1.1. Prehercinic stage / 29
1.2. Hercynian stage / 30
1.3. Alpine stage / 33
2. The structural (geotectonic) units of Romania / 39
2.1. Platform units / 39
2.2. Orogen Units / 42
3. Geodynamic evolution in the Quaternary / 56
3.1. Geodynamic evolution in the Pleistocene /
3.2. Geodynamic evolution in the Holocene - current / 61
3.3. Seismicity / 65
3.4. Morphostructural units in Romania / 67

CHAPTER IV
THE RELIEF OF ROMANIA
/ 83
1. Morphographic and morphometric features / 83
1.1. Defining morphographic elements / 83
2. Leveling surfaces / 91
2.1. General aspects / 91
2.2. Approaching the problem of leveling surfaces in geographical and geological literature / 92
2.3. Genetic-evolutionary stages / 94
3. Piedmonts / 107
3.1. General data / 107
3.2. Knowledge in literature / 108
3.3. Piedmont reliefs and structures / 108
3.4. Conclusions / 112
4. Terraces / 112
4.1. Knowledge in the specialized literature / 112
4.2. The characteristics of the terraces / 113
4.3. Genesis of terraces / 123
4.4. Age of terraces / 123
5. Meadows / 129
5.1. General aspects / 129
5.2. Knowledge in the specialized literature / 130
5.3. The characteristics of the meadows / 130
5.4. Types of meadows / 134
6. Glacial relief / 137
6.1. Composition of the glacial relief / 137
6.2. Extension, number and age of glacial phases / 140
7. Periglacial relief / 144
7.1. General data / 144
7.2. Relief forms, deposits and structures / 145
8. The relief of the coast / 150
9. Structural relief / 151
9.1. Structural characteristics / 151
9.2. Knowledge in literature / 153
9.3. Regional morphostructural differences / 153
9.4. The structural relief of the Carpathians / 165
10. Petrographic relief / 169
10.1. General characteristics / 169
10.2. Knowledge in literature / 169
10.3 Petrographic relief (lithoforms and characteristic landscape types) / 170
10.4. Regional differences / 178
11. Formation of the valley system / 179
11.1. General aspects / 179
11.2. Knowledge in literature / 180
11.3. The stages of the formation of the valley network / 181
12. Current relief modeling / 187
12.1. Morphodynamic potential / 187
12.2. Current georphological processes / 190
12.3. Morphodynamic regioning / 203

CHAPTER V
THE OROGRAPHIC SYSTEM - UNITS AND SUBUNITIES
/ 204
1. The Romanian Carpathians / 204
1.1. Eastern Carpathians (Eastern) / 208
1.2. Curvature Carpathians (Curburii) / 212
1.3. Western Carpathians / 217
2. Hills and plateaus / 223
2.1. Subcarpathians / 224
2.2. The Plateau of Moldova / 229
2.3. Mehedinti Plateau / 231
2.4. Dobrogea Plateau / 232
2.5. Getic Plateau / 234
2.6. Hills of Transylvania (Hilly Depression of Transylvania) / 235
3. The plains / 239
3.1. Romanian Plain (Lower Danube Plain) / 240
3.2. Western Plain (Banato-Somesana) / 247
3.3. Dobrogea fluvio-marine plain (lake river) / 244

BIBLIOGRAPHY / 246

Writing a synthesis paper such as a course or treatise on Romania - physical geography is a great challenge for those who take this seriously. It requires several mandatory requirements - a deep and complete documentation, power to analyze and synthesize the elements worthy of being highlighted in the context of dealing with various issues, a better knowledge of the geographical reality of each unit starting hierarchically from the smallest to the largest on large areas, establishing a sum of problems that fit into a unitary system, but also a complex of graphic representations, cartography and photographic images as appropriate and especially the adaptation of a concept and of one's own style in the development and argumentation of the included demonstrations.
Over the years, numerous works have been carried out in this direction, some through content and demonstration, which have established themselves as extremely valuable, being the order of the day in any replay. Many others, especially after 2000, reflect the "rush" to be written for various "momentary needs" which is reflected in the copying or pseudo-adoption of more or less scientifically convincing paragraphs from several books. the basis (especially the Treatise on Geography) and the addition of a thick bibliography that they never went through.
Conducting a course for pre-university students and teachers requires a combination of scientific information (as complete as possible), and ways of rendering (appropriate language and a sequence of problems in accordance with the established purpose) and the ability to argue. Or, all these require a long exercise materialized in articles, syntheses and preliminary works. Here are some of the reasons that for many years, we have overcome the desire to conceive this writing, guiding us by the saying that "it is not enough to want, you must be able".
Making a work about Romania is a duty to those who have listened to you for many years in the amphitheater, to the science to which you have dedicated yourself, but especially to the country you love and whose secrets are reflected by a multitude. You need to explain the landscapes properly so that they can be understood by as many people as possible. Of course, the general summary of such a work includes in succession the same problems that as a whole will more or less completely render the composition, structure, set of connections and their reflection in the Romanian environmental system. In detail, however, there are differences in the weight of their treatment and especially in the correlations established on different stages, which is reflected in the treatment unit.
I designed the work in several volumes that hope to see the world of printing as soon as possible. They will render complex, first, each component of the natural system without omitting the interdependence between them and especially the place of human activities in the system. In the second, these aspects will be concentrated regionally, on two or three ranks of geographical units with the highlighting of the notable contributions of those who have studied them over the years, but also of the revelation of the geographical features that impose them in the system. In this way, the desire to present in a unitary way the physical part of the Geography of Romania that would reflect a conception and a research activity and teacher of a lifetime, we hope to be largely realized.
The paper will be addressed not only to students in the field of "Natural Sciences" (full-time courses, F.R .. I.D., master), but also to teachers in pre-university education and all those who want to know and understand as much as possible the Romanian geographical realities. They combine harmoniously and organically in a space that includes the Carpathians, the hills, the plateaus and the plains, which rises from the coast to the alpine floor and in man over the millennia has settled, lived permanently using his qualities, but also modified "something" here and there in his temporary interest.
We hope to gather the votes of our readers and to be as close to the truth as possible.

Prof. univ. Dr. MIHAI IELENICZ

www.editurauniversitara.ro

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