The issue of climate risk phenomena is a topical issue, on the agenda of various domestic and international organizations, because they are responsible for major disasters, resulting in human casualties, material damage and important environmental changes. The effects of climate change are increasingly visible in Romania and internationally, whether it is intense heat waves, droughts that destroy agricultural production, floods or threats to biodiversity caused by wildfires. Global warming is driving numerous changes in different regions of the world that include increasing the frequency and severity of storms, hurricanes, floods, landslides, extreme heat or cold waves, droughts, water shortages, forest fires and other disasters. Also, the increase in temperature causes processes with a slow onset, such as sea level rise, coastal erosion, salinization, gradual change in the precipitation regime, thawing of permafrost, shrinking of the ice cap and mountain glaciers.
Probably, in the near future, the regions of Europe will increasingly face the various effects of climate change, this is because, approx. 7% of the population of the European Union lives in areas at risk of flooding, and approximately 9% is found in regions where the precipitation deficit is significant. The combined impact of climate change will pose great problems, in general, regarding the quality of life of the citizens of the European Union, generating at the same time a series of concrete challenges at the sectoral level. The dangers resulting from the increasing intensity and frequency of extreme climatic phenomena at global and national level, such as abnormally abundant precipitation in short intervals, prolonged droughts, desertification, environmental degradation, sea level rise or tropical and extratropical cyclones, already determine , on average, over 20 million people to leave their homes, and move to other areas of their countries, every year.
The European Union and the EU member states, including Romania, made a firm commitment, ratifying the Paris Agreement on climate change. This commitment translates into the EU's ambition to become the first climate-neutral economy and society, until in 2050, with an intermediate objective of reducing emissions at European level, by at least 55% compared to the level from 1990 to 2030. To translate this ambition into reality, a deep transformation is needed, which must be efficient from an economic point of view, i.e. from the point of view of costs and benefits, but also fair from a social point of view. Thus, it is possible to ensure a better efficiency of the efforts made by the international community, and by each individual country, in order to reduce the unfavorable consequences of the climatic risk phenomena.