Editura Universitara Performance and Sustainable Management of Orchards and Tree Plantations in EXPERT SYSTEM

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ISBN: 978-606-28-1138-9

DOI: https://doi.org/10.5682/9786062811389

Publisher year: 2020

Edition: I

Pages:

Publisher: Universitară

Author: Daniela Dana, Irina-Adriana Chiurciu, Valentina Voicu

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The paper brings original contributions, being of national scope with regional and local applicability. The paper consists of an integrated EXPERT SYSTEM that quantifies through credit and penalty points the climatic resources, the soil and infrastructure resources, the production and the quality of the fruits. It is based on a climatic, pedological and biometric database that includes Romania's fruit heritage. It is performed according to an original research methodology and suitable for automatic processing of analytical data and biometric measurements.
This quantified environmental module is compatible with similar systems in Germany, the Czech Republic, Slovakia and other European Union countries with the difference that there is a different approach. It is closer to the local conditions and presents a real technical-economic relationship between the reference resources with direct consequences on the production and quality of the fruits, as well as in the social-administrative plan.
The paper can be used by all public and private institutions with tasks in the field of monitoring policies in the field of agriculture-fruit-environment (Ministry of Agriculture and Rural Development, Ministry of Environment and Water Management, Ministry of European Integration). Also, the work will be useful to local organizations (mayors, groups and professional associations, etc.), and last but not least to the courts in matters of succession, donations, inheritances and sales / purchases of orchards and tree plantations, land restitution and plantations etc.
  • Performance and Sustainable Management of Orchards and Tree Plantations in EXPERT SYSTEM

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DANIELA DANA 
IRINA-ADRIANA CHIURCIU
VALENTINA VOICU

 

PREFACE / 9

CHAPTER I Studies and researches regarding the interaction of environmental factors, characteristic of Romania, in the formation of fruit ecosystems / 13
1.1. General considerations / 13
1.2. Thermal regime in fruit ecosystems / 16
1.3. Light regime in fruit ecosystems / 23
1.4. The aero-hydric regime in the fruit ecosystems / 26
1.5. Soil resources in fruit ecosystems / 32

CHAPTER II Factors that condition the formation of fruit ecosystems / 45
2.1. Favorability and ecopedological restrictions in fruit ecosystems formed on flat lands / 45
2.2. Favorability and ecopedological restrictions in fruit-bearing ecosystems formed on slopes / 52

CHAPTER III Evaluation of orchards and tree plantations in EXPERT SYSTEM / 61
3.1. Climate resources expertise / 61
3.1.1. Method of parameterizing climate resources by the frequency of optimal climatic thresholds and intervals / 65
3.1.2. Expertise of climatic resources for the culture of fruit species / 68
3.1.3. How to calculate the value of climatic resources in fruit growing / 69
3.1.3.1. Characterization indicators / 69
3.1.3.2. Total number of creditworthiness points allowed for non - improving climate resources / 70
3.1.3.3. Climate resources expertise in relation to species and assessment class / 70
3.2. Field resources expertise / 70
3.2.1. Terrain inclination / 70
3.2.2. The shape of the slopes / 79
3.2.3. Land exhibition / 82
3.2.4. Soil erosion / 84
3.2.5. Landslides and landslides / 86
3.2.6. Drainage of the territory / 88
3.2.7. Expertise of field resources for the cultivation of fruit species / 90
3.2.7.1. How to calculate the value of land in fruit growing / 91
3.2.7.2. Characterization indicators / 91
3.2.7.3. Total number of creditworthiness points allowed / 99
3.3. Soil resources expertise / 99
3.3.1. Active edaphic volume (V.E.A.) / 100
3.3.2. Soil reaction / 105
3.3.3. Soil carbonates / 110
3.3.4. Salinization and alkalization of soils / 115
3.3.5. Industrial pollution / 118
3.3.6. Expertise of soil resources for the cultivation of fruit species / 120
3.3.6.1. How to calculate the value of soil in fruit growing / 123
3.3.6.2. Characterization indicators / 131
3.3.6.3. Total number of creditworthiness points allowed / 131
3.3.6.4. Soil fatigue / 132
3.4. Expertise of tree plantations / 133
3.4.1. Age of plantations / 135
3.4.2. Assortment of varieties / 135
3.4.3. Vegetation condition of plantations / 135
3.4.4. How to calculate the value of tree plantations / 136
3.4.4.1. Characterization indicators / 136
3.4.4.2. Total number of creditworthiness points allowed / 137
3.5. Expertise of the infrastructure of the fruit lands and of the tree plantations / 139
3.5.1. Degree of technical equipment of orchards and tree plantations / 140
3.5.2. Capitalizing on fruit production / 140
3.5.3. Proximity to the market / 140
3.5.4. Access to the market / 143
3.5.5. How to calculate the value of the infrastructure of fruit lands and tree plantations / 143
3.5.5.1. Characterization indicators / 143
3.5.5.2. Total number of penalty points allowed / 144
3.6. Method of work and calculation method used in the expertise of orchards and tree plantations / 144
3.6.1. Working mode / 145
3.6.2. Calculation mode / 147
3.6.3. Expertise of apple lands and plantations / 148
3.6.4. Expertise of land and hair plantations / 149
3.6.5. Expertise of plum lands and plantations 150
3.6.6. Expertise of cherry lands and plantations 151
3.6.7. Expertise of cherry lands and plantations 152
3.6.8. Expertise of peach lands and plantations 153
3.6.9. Expertise of apricot lands and plantations / 154
3.7. EXPERT 1/155
3.8. EXPERT 2/155

CHAPTER IV Testing and validation of the ecological module quantified in EXPERT SYSTEM, in fruit farms in Romania / 157
4.1. Testing and validation of the ecological module quantified in EXPERT SYSTEM, in fruit farms from Caras-Severin county / 157
4.1.1. Expert evaluation in EXPERT SYSTEM of the plum plantation from Domasnea, Caras-Severin county / 157
4.1.2. EXPERT SYSTEM evaluation of the apple plantation from Domasnea, Caras-Severin county / 164
4.1.3. EXPERT SYSTEM evaluation of the cherry plantation from USAMVBT - Timisoara Didactic Resort, Farm no. 9, Paltinis, Caras-Severin county / 171
4.1.4. EXPERT SYSTEM evaluation of the plum plantation from Rugi, Caras-Severin county / 178
4.1.5. The evaluation in EXPERT SYSTEM of the apple plantation from USAMVBT - Timisoara Didactic Resort, Farm no. 9, Paltinis, Valea Cenchii body, Caras-Severin county / 186
4.2. Testing and validation of the ecological module quantified in EXPERT SYSTEM, in fruit farms from Bistrita-Nasaud county / 193
4.2.1. EXPERT SYSTEM evaluation of the apple plantation from SCDP Bistrita, Bistrita-Nasaud county / 193
4.2.2. EXPERT SYSTEM evaluation of the plum plantation from SCDP Bistrita, Bistrita-Nasaud county / 199
4.2.3. EXPERT SYSTEM evaluation of the cherry plantation from SCDP Bistrita, Bistrita county Nasaud / 206
4.3. Testing and validation of the ecological module quantified in EXPERT SYSTEM, in fruit farms of SCDP Baneasa, Bucharest / 212
4.3.1. Evaluation in EXPERT SYSTEM of the apple plantation from SCDP Baneasa, Bucharest / 212
4.3.2. EXPERT SYSTEM evaluation of the peach plantation from SCDP Baneasa, Bucharest / 218
4.4. Testing and validation of the ecological module quantified in EXPERT SYSTEM, in fruit farms of SCDP Constanta, Constanta county / 224
4.4.1. EXPERT SYSTEM evaluation of the cherry plantation from SCDP Constanta, Constanta county / 224
4.4.2. EXPERT SYSTEM evaluation of the cherry plantation from SCDP Constanta, Constanta county / 229
4.5. Evolution of areas, productions and prices for the main fruit species in Romania / 235
4.5.1. Evolution of areas, productions and prices for the apple species / 235
4.5.2. Evolution of surfaces, productions and prices for the hair species / 239
4.5.3. Evolution of areas, productions and prices for the plum species / 244
4.5.4. Evolution of surfaces, productions and prices for the cherry and cherry species / 248
4.5.5. Evolution of surfaces, productions and prices for the nectarine species / 255
4.5.6. Evolution of areas, productions and prices for apricot species / 259

SELECTIVE BIBLIOGRAPHY / 265

Currently, Romania's orchard heritage is declining due to the restitution of especially tree plantations in urban and peri-urban areas, the new owners giving another destination to the lands under the plantation, and the plantations outside the town give small yields per hectare. On the other hand, market research highlights the growing demand of consumers for the products and services they buy. In the end, an industrial tree plantation must become efficient, but the costs resulting from non-quality can represent between 5 and 30% of turnover, so that a poorly done job (which determines the non-quality) costs as much as a well done one. (which determines the quality), but the latter reduces the cost price while the former increases it.
This paper establishes the value of orchards and tree plantations, streamlines the forecast of orchard land use and fruit quality by establishing a starting price in the courts (sales / purchases of orchards and plantations, successions, inheritances, donations, restitutions, etc. .).
At the same time, the work facilitates the efforts of the Ministry of Agriculture and Rural Development for the formation of fruit farms with productions made at low costs, efficient and producing quality, marketable fruits.
Internationally, both the general public and decision-makers feel more and more strongly about environmental issues. This takes place especially at the level of farmers in fruit growing, the branch with large investments and long-term use, but also at national and cross-border level. The Cardiff European Council in June 1998 called on the Council of the European Union to establish its own strategies for achieving results in integrating environmental and rural development issues into various policy areas.
The Vienna European Council in December 1998 reaffirmed its commitment and further requested the European Commission to provide a report on the indicators. In its Communication "Directions for Sustainable Agriculture", the Commission emphasized that Agenda 2000 reforms provided a new impetus for integrating environmental issues into agricultural policy. The Communication "Indicators for the integration of environmental aspects into the Community Agricultural Policy (PCA)" highlighted once again the Commission's major interest in establishing agro-ecological indicators.
The present paper is executed by a team of researchers with experience in the field of soil and climate polluting plant, conducting research on the fruit heritage on the entire sequence of natural conditions, according to an original research methodology, applied uniformly and ecosystemically integrated.
The paper is of national scope with applicative effect at regional and local level. This paper consists in the elaboration of an integrated EXPERT SYSTEM that quantifies the climatic resources, soil resources and those of particular infrastructure of fruit lands and fruit plantations, for seven species of trees (apple, pear, plum, cherry, sour cherry, apricot and peach), cultivated in the temperate zone, in Romania, as well as in the European Union.
The main purpose of the paper is the conservation of natural and artificial resources of the fruit heritage through the efficient and sustainable management of orchards and tree plantations in EXPERT SYSTEM, from top down approaches to the involvement of local communities. A unique, integrated and operational set of measurable criteria and indicators will be designed and tested on a national scale, as a basis for a comprehensive, unitary IT system, used for the realization of an intelligent infrastructure, following the realization of a quantified and integrated ecological model of climate resources. soil resources and infrastructure specific to orchards and tree plantations, as follows:
1. Expertise on climate resources This objective was designed to develop and define sustainable scientific criteria and indicators relevant to the unitary characterization for the whole country and in the perspective of global climate change, an EXPERT SYSTEM that quantifies the meteorological elements that condition the fruiting phenophases of fruit species. studied according to an original method developed and partially applied locally. This method is based on the frequency of repeatability of thresholds and optimal climatic intervals over the last ten years (scientific priority).
2. Expertise of soil and land resources Soil is an essential component of fruit ecosystems. It is considered the quantification of ground conditions (slope, exposure, surface and deep erosion, as well as landslides), drainage (volume of neglected and non-pseudogued soil, aeration porosity), soil (active soil volume, reaction soil, salinization, alkalization, changeable Al content of acid soils and calcium carbonate with the depth of occurrence of the horizons Cca, Cpr, Rz and CaCO3 active in a carbon dioxide) and industrial pollution.
3. The expertise of the tree plantations The indicators of characterization of the tree plantations are: the age of the trees, the assortment of species, varieties and rootstocks, the state of vegetation of the plantations, the production and the quality of the fruits.
4. The expertise of the fruit lands infrastructure at the characterization of the tree plantations infrastructure are quantified the degree of equipping the lands and plantations, the possibilities of access to the orchard and to the fruit markets.
The paper brings original contributions, being of national scope with regional and local applicability. The paper consists of an integrated EXPERT SYSTEM that quantifies through credit and penalty points the climatic resources, the soil and infrastructure resources, the production and the quality of the fruits. It is based on a climatic, pedological and biometric database that includes Romania's fruit heritage. It is performed according to an original research methodology and suitable for automatic processing of analytical data and biometric measurements.
This quantified environmental module is compatible with similar systems in Germany, the Czech Republic, Slovakia and other European Union countries with the difference that there is a different approach. It is closer to the local conditions and presents a real technical-economic relationship between the reference resources with direct consequences on the production and quality of the fruits, as well as in the social-administrative plan.
The paper can be used by all public and private institutions with tasks in the field of monitoring policies in the field of agriculture-fruit-environment (Ministry of Agriculture and Rural Development, Ministry of Environment and Water Management, Ministry of European Integration). Also, the work will be useful to local organizations (mayors, groups and professional associations, etc.), and last but not least to the courts in matters of succession, donations, inheritances and sales / purchases of orchards and tree plantations, land restitution and plantations etc.

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