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Editura Universitara Avalanches. Conditions, types, risks

0,01 Lei

ISBN: 978-606-591-475-9

DOI: 10.5682/9786065914759

Publisher year: 2012

Edition: I

Pages: 195

Publisher: Universitară

Author: Alexandru Nedelea, Anca Victorina Munteanu, Narcisa Milian

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  • Avalansele. Conditii, tipuri, riscuri

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Muntii sunt areale pe care omul a cautat in permanenta sa le descopere tainele. Intre aceste necunoscute sunt si avalansele, ce reprezinta o manifestare naturala a zapezii, conditionata de anumiti factori locali. A fost in permanenta un dusman sau doar o simpla manifestare a naturii, pentru cei care ajungeau cat mai sus, pe cararile inzapezite ale muntilor. Prezenta activitatilor umane, in continua expansiune, a ajuns si in spatiile guvernate de avalanse. Fie ca se afla pe munte pentru o activitate recreativa, sportiva, muncitoreasca sau din dorinta sa fie cat mai aproape frumusetile naturii, omul a ajuns sa fie afectat de manifestarea acestor avalanse. Astfel, multe calamitati au avut loc. S-a simtit in permanenta nevoia de cercetare amanuntita a tuturor problemelor generate de avalanse, pentru a se cunoaste ce anume este necesar sa se evite viitoare accidente.

Scrierea unei cartii despre avalanse, ca un fenomen complex, ce afecteaza o gama variata de componente ale mediului, reprezinta un pas indraznet, mai ales ca a necesitat o documentare sustinuta. Structurata in trei parti, cuprinse si in titlu, cartea aceasta arata detaliat conditiile de formare, tipologia si riscurile. Imaginile grafice si fotografice aduc un plus de informatie, pe langa cele continute in text.

Vine sa suplineasca lipsa informatiilor din literatura geografica romaneasca, despre acest subiect, prea putin tratat. Se simtea nevoia unui asemenea abordari de tema, care se adreseaza unei game variate de cititori, atat celor care doresc sa afle informatii generale, cercetatorilor, meteorologilor, profesorilor, studentilor, dar in egala masura celor care ajung frecvent pe munte, drumetilor, sportivilor, salvamontistilor, silvicilor, jandarmilor montani, administratorilor de arii protejate, ai drumurilor sau locali, precum si celor care realizeaza diferite lucrari de infrastructura in spatiul montan. Poate fi un util ghid de patrundere in tainele avalanselor.

Pentru a sti cum sa te protejezi fata de riscurile iminente ale ariilor montane, trebuie sa cauti sa cunosti cat mai bine detaliile pe care natura le ascunde. Doar prin cunoastere, poti sa sti ce anume trebuie sa faci, ca sa te protejezi in fata manifestarii acestora.

Aducem multumiri tuturor celor care ne-au sprijinit la realizarea acestei lucrari. In primul rand CNCSIS, pentru finantarea acestei carti si a proiectului Evaluarea si monitorizarea riscului la avalanse in contextul organizarii si amenajarii spatiului montan. Studiu de caz Muntii Fagaras si Piatra Craiului, categoria IDEI, perioada de desfasurare 2009-2011, precum  si proiectului “The strategic grant POSDRU /89/1.5/S/ 58852, Project Program for postdoctoral researchers in science education, co-financed by the European Social Fund within the Sectoral Operational Program Human Resources’ Development 2007–2013".

Multumim de asemenea tuturor colegilor si prietenilor, celor care ne-au sprijinit si ajutat cu informatii, idei, sugestii, fotografii, celor de la Facultatea de Geografie, membrii ai proiectului (Laura Comanescu, Robert Dobre, Catalina Gheorghe), de la Administratia Nationala de Meteorologie, membrilor formatiilor Salvamont Zarnesti, Sibiu, Pitesti, Campulung, Busteni, Brasov, Administratiei Parcului National Piatra Craiului (in special lui Mircea Verghelet, Oliviu Pop, Costi Vezeanu), Clubului Alpin Roman (Dan Vasilescu, Dinu si Marlene Mititeanu, Liliana Becea, Marius Scheaua), membrilor Clubului de Turism Montan Liliecii Brasov (Cosmin Munteanu, Mihai Zegrea, Dan Mazilu, Adi Mazilu, Emil Chambos), cabanierilor de la Curmatura - familia Dic, Jandarmeriei Montane, lui Panescu Iulian, Roxana Trandafir, Vlad Teofil, Vasile Gavrilescu, Radu Emilian, Laurentiu Barza, Irinel Grigore, Francois Sivardiere, Cristina Stoian, Brandusa Balan, Ionut Ursu, Florin Madar, Gina Badea, David Neacsu, Bogdan Costescu, Cosmin Dan, Bogdan Sulica, Victor Gheorghiu.

De asemenea, ii aducem un gand pios celei care a deschis drumul cunoasterii avalanselor in Romania, Maria Dana Motoiu.

Introducere  / 9

1. Avalansele  / 11
    1.1. Ce sunt avalansele / 11
   1.2. Avalanse – scurt istoric al cercetarii si cunoasterii / 12

2. Conditii de formare si producere a avalanselor / 17
    2.1. Factorii potentiali / 17
    2.2. Factorii declansatori / 30
    2.3. Mecanismul de declansare a avalanselor / 36
    2.4. Mecanismul desfasurarii avalanselor / 39
    2.5. Morfologia zonelor de avalansa / 39
    2.6. Alte caracteristici ale avalanselor / 44

3. Tipuri si clasificari ale avalanselor / 47

4. Riscul generat de avalanse / 61
    4.1.  Cum sunt percepute avalansele? / 61
    4.2.  Efectele avalanselor / 65
    4.3.  Programul de nivologie al Administratiei Nationale de Meteorologie /76
    4.4. Activitatile turistice si impactul avalanselor asupra acestora /91
    4.5.  Cum se produc accidentele cu avalanse si recomandari pentru cei care merg in zona montana / 98
    4.6. Sursele de informare despre avalanse / 114
    4.7. Cum se monitorizeaza avalansele? / 115
    4.8. Hartile de risc de avalansa /116
    4.9. Amenajarile antiavalansa 129

5. Exemple de manifestare a avalanselor in diferite areale montane / 141
    5.1. Exemple de manifestare a avalanselor in diferite areale montane din Romania /141
    5.2. Exemple de manifestare a avalanselor in diferite alte areale montane / 171

Bibliografie   / 177

Alexandru Nedelea
Alexandru Nedelea

Born in 1968 in Corbeni, Arges County, graduating from high school industrial no. 1 (forest) Arges (1987) and Department of Geography, University of Bucharest (1997), was then master the dynamic geomorphology and environmental protection land (1998).

Since 2005 PhD in Geography with a thesis entitled "Arges Valley in the mountain - geomorphological study".

It is now a lecturer at the University of Bucharest, Faculty of Geography and Head of the Department of Geomorphology, Pedology.

His research involved geomorphology, applied geomorphology of mountain environments, dynamic geomorphology and geomorphological risks, regional geography of Romania.

He specialized at the University Joseph Fourier Grenoble, France (Institute of Alpine Geography) Fellow, 2002, Abisko Research Station of the Swedish Royal Academy, Fellow 2000 and 2001.

He is author or coauthor of five papers, over 20 articles, 4 of them abroad and numerous research contracts (2 as a project manager and 14 research teams).

He participated in over 40 national and international symposia (France, Algeria, Egypt, Turkey, Belgium).

Since 1998 is member of the Geomorphology of Romania and the Society of Geography of Romania, and since 2008 member of the Faculty Council and Senate.


Anca Victorina Munteanu
Anca Victorina Munteanu

Born in 1976 in Brasov, a graduate of Geography, University of Bucharest (2000) and master of dynamics and environmental land Geomorphology (2001).

Since 2004 collaborates with the Department of Geomorphology and Pedology Geomatică and Research Center and dynamic geomorphological land degradation, the University of Bucharest, Faculty of Geography, where he is currently assistant.

He specialized in dynamic geomorphology, hazards, risks in mountain areas.

PhD in geography in 2009, the thesis is entitled "morphodynamic current risks and natural hazards Massif", which starts early identification and monitoring activities to areas affected by avalanches.

The Training courses conducted at the University Jagiellonska in Krakow, Poland, Norway, Switzerland, Romania.

It has a mountain experience over 20 years, which allowed the study approach avalanches.

The Secretary of the Romanian Alpine Club of avalanches and internships organized by the lecturer.

She was a member of the Polar Ural Mountains 
and Lake Aral scientific expeditions.

Author and coauthor of over 25 articles and 4 books.

She participated in over 50 national and international conferences (Poland, Austria, France, Germany, Finland).

It was part of research teams in nine projects (including one as a project manager).

Since 2006 is a member of Geomorphology in Romania.


Narcisa Milian

Born in 1968 in Medgidia, and since 1971 lives in Sibiu.

She graduated in physics, University of Bucharest (1993), Atmospheric Physics and Earth.

From the autumn is committed to the National Meteorology Administration and works as a meteorologist previzionist the weather forecasting service in Sibiu.

From February 2004 Nivo works program of the National Administration of Meteorology, who participated in training for specialization at the Centre d'Etude Neige in Grenoble, France Weather.

She represented the National Meteorological Administration Services at the European Congresses of 2007 and 2009 Avalanche and Avalanche Services Meetings of Sudeto-Carpathian countries since 2006.

The translated materials Nivo.

Author and coauthor of over 30 articles and Nivo Check annually starting in 2004

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