Editura Evrika Synthesis of Romanian language and literature for success in high school and in life. The third edition, revised and finalized - Paul Magheru

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Publisher: Evrika

Author: Paul Magheru

Pages: 332

Publisher year: 2020

ISBN: 978-606-94903-3-4

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"The baccalaureate, far from being an end in itself, intervenes in an important moment in the life of a young person, between adolescence and adulthood, decisive for his professional orientation and his subsequent evolution ...

In order to support the candidates for this exam, to save time, materials and effort, our teacher summarizes in 12 chapters, detailed in the table of contents, the entire subject of Romanian language and literature, found in the proposed subjects, mastered in middle and high school education. , as the case may be, on channels and profiles, real and humanistic, technological, vocational.

We wanted, through a single book accessible to all, to prove that the baccalaureate is not as difficult as it seems. This exam should not be seen as a scare, not even a necessary evil. Treated with conscientiousness and perseverance, it can become not only very accessible, but also an opportunity to affirm the intellectual and spiritual abilities of a young person on the verge of maturity ”. (Prof. Dr. Paul Magheru)
Paul Magheru

Romanian popular myths and legends / 14
Species of the popular epic and cults in verse and prose / 14
G. Calinescu about the four myths of the Romanian literary tradition: Traian and Dochia, The Flyer, Master Manole, Miorita / 17
Languages ​​written on the territory of our country / 23
Religious, historical and teaching literature. The first manuscripts and prints / 24
Historical literature in Moldova and Tara Romaneasca (Gr. Ureche, M. Costin, Ion Neculce, D. Cantemir, Stolnicul Constantin Cantacuzino, Radu Popescu) / 27
Classification of literary genres and species / 34
Major species of the epic genus / 39
Other species of the epic genus / 40
Species of the lyrical genre / 41
Species of the dramatic genus / 42
Criteria for characterizing literary genres / 43
Modes or modalities of literary exposition / 44
Enlightenment and the Transylvanian School / 50
Brief history of Transylvania / 54
The beginnings of poetry in Tara Romaneasca and Moldova / 56
Romanian literature from the Pasoptist period. Development of culture, education, press, literature (Cezar Bolliac, Alecu Russo, Grigore Alexandrescu, Costache Negruzzi, Dimitrie Bolintineanu, Vasile Alecsandri) / 58
Romanian writers after the revolution of 1848 (Alexandru Odobescu, Nicolae Filimon, Bogdan Petriceicu Hasdeu) / 66
Brief history / 70
The life and work of Titu Maiorescu / 71
The activity of aesthetic guide / 72
Mihai Eminescu / 78
Life and work / 78
Luceafarul / 80
So cool… / 84
Ion Creanga / 87
Life and activity / 87
Childhood memories / 87
The story of Harap Alb / 90
Ion Luca Caragiale / 93
The comic universe / 93
Family tree and opera / 99
A lost letter / 101
The function and aspects of the comic in Caragiale's work / 105
Ioan Slavici / 108
Life and the world he went through / 108
Opera / 110
Good luck mill / 112
Definition / 118
Romanian Romanticism / 120
Literary currents at the end of the 19th century and the beginning of the 20th century. Realism / 122
Modernist or avant - garde currents / 126
Symbolism / 126
Expressionism / 132
Surrealism / 135
Literary journalism / 140
Under the sign of modernity. Eugen Lovinescu and the theory of synchronism / 142
Traditionalism and modernism in interwar literature (G. Cosbuc, Vasile Voiculescu, Ion Pillat, O. Goga) / 144
Interwar prose / 153
Mihail Sadoveanu, Life and work / 154
Baltagul / 159
Liviu Rebreanu, life and work / 161
Ion. / 163
The forest of the hanged / 167
Camil Petrescu, life and work / 172
The last night of love, the first night of war / 173
G. Calinescu, life and work / 180
Enigma Otiliei / 181
Mircea Eliade, bio-bibliographical data / 187
Poetic modernism / 192
George Bacovia, bio-bibliographical data / 193
Tudor Arghezi, the miracle of modern poetry / 197
Lucian Blaga, poet and philosopher / 209
I do not crush the corolla of the wonders of the world / 212
The oak. / 215
Ion Barbu and poetic hermeticism / 218
Second game / 223
Historical, territorial, socio-cultural and professional ramifications of vocabulary / 228
Vocabulary as a system. Semantic fields and word family. Semantic categories: synonyms, homonyms, antonyms, polysemantic words, paronyms, eponyms. / 229
Word formation in Romanian (composition, derivation, change of grammatical function; loans) / 232
The stage of integral Stalinism (1948 - 1953) / 237
The stage of formal de-Stalinization (1953 - 1964) / 238
The stage of relative liberalization (1964-1971) / 241
The stage of communist nationalism (Ceausescu); 1971-1989 / 244
Mihail Sadoveanu, Nicoara Potcoava / 252
Marin Preda, Morometii / 256
Nichita Stanescu, 11 elegies / 259
Marin Sorescu, Iona / 262
Modern, modernism, modernity / 270
Postmodernism / 273
Radu Petrescu, Ocheanul intors / 280
10.4 Mircea Nedelciu, Plain raspberries / 286
The content of the literary work: theme, idea, motive, subject, character / 292
Subject organization / 293
Literary character / 295
Instances of the literary text: author, narrator, character, reader. / 299
Types of narrators and narratives / 300
Notions of versification and style / 303


The preface to the third edition, revised and finalized, of the Syntheses of Romanian language and literature for the success of the baccalaureate and in life, takes over almost exactly the Word before the previous editions with small omissions and necessary updates. The dual purpose of the Syntheses, formulated in the title, might seem presumptuous if we did not have the frankness and sincerity to recognize that the baccalaureate exam is more than a regular periodic assessment, annual or at the end of an educational cycle (primary, secondary, high school ). The baccalaureate, far from being an end in itself, intervenes in an important moment in the life of a young person, between adolescence and adulthood, decisive for his professional orientation and subsequent evolution. It is no coincidence that the baccalaureate was called and called the matriculation exam. The word itself has in its composition words of consecration and honorability. In Latin berry, means berry, fruit or aromatic leaf, usually bay; and the laureate translates into laurel, laurel, the laurel wreath that served in antiquity to crown heroes, poets, orators. The semiotician Umberto Eco (Come si fa una tesi di laurea) designates by degree a bachelor's thesis in a certain specialized field. In our country, the baccalaureate diploma allows the graduate to continue his intellectual and professional training in a higher education institution, in a post-secondary school or to decide alone or with civic responsibility the path he takes. has to follow in life.
The syntheses of Romanian language and literature are made in accordance with the curriculum, the baccalaureate program and the alternative textbooks, with communicative-functional purposes, which aim at the formation of intellectual competences and abilities of correct and efficient expression. The discipline of Romanian language and literature has a particularly important role in building students' personality, in forming skills and abilities that will ensure their post-school access to lifelong learning, to the necessary integration in a knowledge-based society. Language, as it is known, is the linguistic expression of thought. Usually, those who think well express themselves well and correctly. Since the seventeenth century, the thinker Blaise Pascal warns us that "Whoever wants to think well must have, constantly and latently, along with the notion he uses, and its definition." For those who understand a thing well, the words come naturally and can explain it in the simplest terms. An important role in the development of expression has the direct reading of some scientific or artistic writings, recommended as models of high expression of ideas and feelings no matter how complicated. However, lately there is an increasingly frequent avoidance of direct readings in favor of electronic means for fast and convenient transportation of information, summaries, reports or reviews accessed from the Internet or computer. Communication specialists, even Umberto Eco (From the Internet to Guttemberg), assure us at the same time that, despite rivalries of means, time and comfort, between the Guttenberg Galaxy and the Internet, between reading on paper and receiving on the virtual space, the relationship is complementary. The competition between the two galaxies can be neither defeated nor victorious. Instead, the direct reading of the literary text, sympathetic, reflective-meditative, possibly with a pencil in hand, favors the ineffable, hard-to-express content of the literary work, facilitates access to the intimate, imaginative, fictional, fantastic, ideal nature of literature as art.

8-9 years ago, in the school year 2009-2010, a special Commission for drafting baccalaureate subjects, under the Ministry of National Education, began to develop, by channels and profiles, reasonable subjects for the baccalaureate exam, molded on the knowledge of Romanian language and literature acquired until the final grade of high school, according to the curricula, school curricula and alternative textbooks in force. Thus, the first of the three subjects was supported by a studied literary text or at first sight, with 9 items (points, requirements, tasks to be solved) and was meant to verify the knowledge of general philological culture, language and literature, with items of spelling and punctuation, vocabulary, stylistics, notions of literary science (history, criticism, literary theory), some acquired since the fifth grade. The second subject requires students to compose an argumentative text or speech on a given topic, which is supported by an aphorism or maxim, a famous quote or expression, a situation or an event. This subject could be called an essay or free composition, because as the name suggests (fr. Essayer - to try) he tries or verifies the level of general and sensitive culture.students' ability, starting from a given topic. It is true that an essay can also be called a text or speech, but not every text or speech is also an essay. The specific difference of the essay is given by the subjectivity, originality and the possibility of free expression of the author. The third subject, erroneously considered an essay, required graduates to write an essay and, to be complete, an essay structured according to literary works, which aims to verify the reading of literature and knowledge of science, literature and history. , literary theory and criticism, related to the studied texts. The subject verifies, therefore, the reading, the understanding and the interpretation of the knowledge of Romanian literature accumulated over the years, having obviously a reproductive character and not a creative one. Students and teachers have become accustomed to the subjects and simulation tests, and the results and the percentage of passability of the baccalaureate have increased significantly from year to year.

Personally, in order to support graduates and as a promotion of higher education, I offered for several years free consultations of Romanian language and literature for baccalaureate and college admission, until, in the 2017-2018 school year, an Order of the Minister changed radically the structure, content and requirements of the subjects, with the pretension of making them easier, but to the detriment of the quality of education, of the linguistic and literary culture of the high school graduates. I decided then that instead of the consultations to elaborate these Syntheses, assuring the students that, if they go through the minimum necessary bibliography of literary works and read this book, they can obtain at the baccalaureate grades over 9, which was confirmed in proportion of 100 %, based on a test with graduates who accepted and respected the bet with maturity and seriousness. The new formula for the baccalaureate exam, unfortunately, starts from the wrong, almost offensive, presumption of functional illiteracy of high school graduates. It is based on a Test of the Program for International Assessment of Students (PISA), according to which 42% of Romanian students do not understand the text read and get stuck in basic arithmetic, given that the European average is 20%, but without it is taken into account that the test was done for 15-year-old students and that from this age they still go through an important stage of high school education. As a result, starting from the presumption of functional illiteracy, inapplicable to high school graduates, subject I, based on a non-literary text (although we are at a Romanian literature exam) verifies whether the graduate can read and explain what he understood. From the same subject with five questions or work tasks, considered objective item A, another item B, subjective, is detached, and it is required to write an argumentative text of 150-300 words, of essay type, starting from a statement or information. from the basic text. Although it is specified that students can use personal or cultural experience, freedom of thought and expression is limited by the obligation to relate to the information in the excerpt. Compulsory reporting to the basic text deprives the student of displaying his own personality and his entire formal education (from school), non-formal (outside school) and informal education (from several backgrounds, in different ways). The second part of the first subject would correspond to the second subject of the old formulation, which was more suitable for a free composition or essay and which better proved the originality of the student's thinking and feeling. The second subject, the same for all fields, profiles, specializations, as well as the first subject, has as support a literary text through which it is required to illustrate a notion or a concept of literary theory (genre, species, literary current, notions of composition, versification and style), something similar to subject I of the old formulation. The third subject, differentiated according to the chain, profile, specialization consists in the elaboration of an essay (again the same inappropriate name when it comes to a reproductive composition after a literary text) of at least 400 words and aims at aspects of thematic analysis, structural, stylistic works belonging to canonical writers, cultural / literary currents, literary species and / or types of texts mentioned in the school curriculum.

It is not excluded that in the future other forms of baccalaureate subjects will appear. Improvements and recommendations are possible at any time, but never to the detriment of the content, linguistic and literary culture strictly necessary for a high school graduate. As far as we are concerned, starting from this postulate, we have compiled a kind of vademecum (lat. Go with me), companion, guide, guide, guide, guide, book or manual, which will guide the reader through the whole matter of Romanian language and literature, included in the baccalaureate program. This book, valid for anyone and anytime, was conceived in the long run, that is, in the eternal present, considering that the matter of the Romanian language and literature, always the same, does not change according to the whims of the times, managers or occasional managers, not even after each generation. Written for young people or grandchildren, it could not be much different from what their grandparents or parents learned. Our syntheses entrusted to the press were composed in a comfortable manner, that is, of books made of books, of notes and notes since I was a student, of personal readings, of fiction, history, theory and literary criticism, of consulting alternative textbooks, from his own didactic and scientific experience in higher education. We consider all these acquisitions as a common good and, since as a teacher, grandfather or parent we do not boast a touch of originality, their use can be excused and accepted for the high and good purpose of young people's success in high school and in life. This kind of composite (mixed) writing has been called miscellany, florilegiu, honeycomb, horn of plenty, anthology, marginals since antiquity and was left to young people to serve as instruction, intellectual edification and delight. We preferred the term Synthesis because they did not intend to be an individual performance book, but by the way it was conceived and elaborated, a guide or guide of urgent didactic necessity. Forms of reproductive knowledge such as abstract, overview, paper, review, paraphrase, compilation, without major personal contributions, can be accepted and practiced up to a certain level of claim of creative scientific originality. We have tried, and hope we have succeeded, to compile a representative history of Romanian literature in its aesthetic evolution from its origins to today's postmodernism, accompanied by adjacent aspects of theory, literary criticism and language cultivation, required by the program of baccalaureate, in one book, concise, clear and understandable to all.

In order to support the baccalaureate candidates, in order to save time, materials and effort, our didactic guide summarizes in 12 chapters, detailed in the table of contents, the entire subject of Romanian language and literature, found in the exam subjects, mastered in middle and high school education. , as the case may be, on channels and profiles, real and humanistic, technological, vocational. The syntheses of language and communication, at all levels regarding the cultivation of language, we have integrated them among the chapters of literature, where we thought that they fit best, that they facilitate or complement the syntheses between which they are interspersed. The method of interpretation and valorization of literary works, common in education and literary criticism, remains constantly the literary commentary and analysis, reduced in very few cases to a brief presentation of the work. Literary analysis, as it is known, is a separation of the work into component parts of content and form, in order to better understand its structure and aesthetic functioning. Literary analysis generally follows some more important stages that can hardly be avoided: short historical-literary information about the work and the writer, content elements, theme, idea, brief presentation of the subject, character analysis, form aspects, organization the subject, modes of exposition, if the work is in prose or lyrics, artistic means and procedures, artistic images, elements of versification and style, stylistic and literary values. Finally, we offer a model of total semiotic analysis of the work, since semiotics is the general science of signs, including literature as an artistic sign.

The baccalaureate program does not fail to notify that the monographic study of writers, not even of the canonical ones, is not obligatory. As for the so-called canonical writers, 17 in number, from the titular genius of the national spirit Mihai Eminescu to Nichita Stanescu or Marin Sorescu, the same program claims to know at least one representative text from their work. Neither we nor the textbooks hesitated to provide minimal bio-bibliographic data in connection with almost all writers. This is because in reality there is no absolute autonomy between the writer and the work, no matter how many procedures of artistic masking of paternity would be used. Any artistic creation is necessarily the product of an existential conflict, a dissatisfaction with oneself and others, an aspiration towards a higher ideal of humanity. Therefore, each work, faithful to its own nature, not without aesthetic, religious, moralizing purposes, can offer a life lesson, a behavior worth following, an incentive to perfection, as an adjunct to success in life.

Literary, linguistic and literary bibliography, studies of history, theory and literary criticism, older and newer textbooks, the enumeration of which would exceed the size of this book, rpostpones, as I motivated, implicit, sometimes explicit, noted for convenience in parentheses, but only in situations where I thought it would be worth a personal in-depth study of some topics. We also clarified the usual glossaries or indexes of lesser-known words, names, neologisms, so as not to complicate the infrastructure of the work, also in parentheses, usually through synonyms or etymological explanations.

Our syntheses of Romanian language and literature, with S from Sirene, as the cover suggests - nymphs of the sea, who enchanted the ships with their voices - we hope to entice readers without the danger of hitting any rock or , if necessary, they can cover their ears with wax like the vassals of the wanderer Odysseus (Odysseus), to listen only to their teacher of Romanian language and literature Orpheus, who can overcome any temptation with his songs. We wanted, through a single book accessible to all, to prove that the baccalaureate is not as difficult as it seems. This exam should not be seen as a scare, not even a necessary evil. Treated with conscientiousness and perseverance, it can become not only very accessible, but also an opportunity to affirm the intellectual and spiritual abilities of a young person on the verge of maturity. For this, several progressively cumulated conditions are required. First of all, to have the courage and responsibility to take a necessary, compulsory exam. Be demanding of yourself and others. Trust yourself. To know how to capitalize creatively and reproducibly the knowledge of Romanian language and literature accumulated until the baccalaureate. Do not avoid direct reading of the minimum required texts. Be honest. To want to give a useful meaning to the life that awaits you. For graduates with a baccalaureate degree, obtained through sustained effort, without neglecting their rights, but also the obligations of youth, the gates of the future remain permanently wide open.
Prof. univ. Dr. Paul Magheru


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