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English is now not only an international language, but the language spoken all over the planet, the language of the globalising world. In the great linguistic and cultural diversity worldwide, English is the lingua franca of humanity today and, probably, tomorrow. Its prestige of the language of great cultures and civilisations, the status of universal language of knowledge, its global expansion make learning English a necessity of every individual. English must be seen in two essential aspects: instrument of communication and means of knowledge. As an instrument of communication, English has a wide scope of action, at international level, surpassing the boundaries of languages, cultures and civilisations. As a means of knowledge, English opens the access to a vast universe of knowledge, a kind of Borgesian library, seen as an endless labyrinth, a noosphere in ongoing expansion. The reason is a simple one: human knowledge, based on scientific research, inspiration, talent, innovation and creativity, is nowadays expressed in English regardless of the language, culture, civilisation of origin, all over the planet. In these circumstances, English must be a priority of every individual in the Knowledge Society and the Globalisation Era.
The Course English, a Gateway to Knowledge, Culture and Communication is intended to open a “gateway” to the universe of knowledge and academic communication through English. It addresses a qualified public in the specialised areas of legal sciences, international relations, European studies, European and international law, comparative law, political and administrative sciences. It is a diverse academic public consisting of undergraduate and postgraduate students, researchers, academics, practitioners and specialists. The six units of the course propose fundamental issues in the areas of English and American law, calling into question important notions, indispensable to the professional culture. At the same time, the date and information exposed are elements of the knowledge required in today’s world, in which the model of knowledge, beyond specialisation, is an inter- and trans-disciplinary one. In this approach, English is therefore a gateway to the universe of knowledge or, at least, to a part of it. Once you have entered, other gates open endlessly through study. At the same time, the present course approaches English as an instrument of communication, trans-disciplinary and trans-cultural communication, an instrument of universal vocation. The whole book is placed under the auspices of the idea of communication, which includes and objectifies knowledge in all its aspects.
THE COURT SYSTEM. ORGANISATION OF JUSTICE IN ENGLAND AND WALES/ 11
THE SUPREME COURT OF THE UNITED KINGDOM/ 33
SUPPLEMENTARY READING: THE SENIOR COURTS/ 46
UNIT 2/ 67
THE TRIAL BY JURY/ 69
SUPPLEMENTARY READING. HISTORY OF THE JURY TRIAL/ 99
PROS AND CONS REGARDING THE JURY TRIAL/ 105
UNIT 3 / 109
JURIES IN ENGLAND AND WALES/ 111
UNIT 4 /135
THE U.S. LEGAL SYSTEM/ 137
UNIT 5 / 163
HISTORY AND ORGANISATION OF THE FEDERAL JUDICIAL SYSTEM/ 165
UNIT 6/ 201
LAWYERS, LITIGANTS, AND INTEREST GROUPS IN THE JUDICIAL PROCESS/ 203
GRAMMAR ESSENTIALS/ 237
LIST OF IRREGULAR VERBS/ 291
Religie si filosofie
Preceptele dreptului sunt: sa traiesti cinstit, sa nu vatami altuia, sa dai fiecaruia ce i se cuvine